Table 2

Disease severity and management measures, by COPD subtypes

CharacteristicsStudy populationSymptom-based COPD % (95% CI)Doctor-diagnosed COPD % (95% CI)Symptom-based or doctor-diagnosed COPD % (95% CI)
Participants158661211931586
Lung function (mean±SD)
 FEV1 (L)1.8±0.11.9±0.21.7±0.11.8±0.1
 FVC (L)2.6±0.22.7±0.22.5±0.22.6±0.2
 FEV1/FVC (%)67.1±2.568.3±2.465.6±2.667.1±2.5
CAT score
 <1088250.1 (48.7 to 51.5)54.2 (53.2 to 55.2)55.6 (54.8 to 56.5)
 10–2051432.9 (31.6 to 34.2)33.0 (32.0 to 33.9)32.4 (31.6 to 33.2)
 >2019017.0 (15.9 to 18.1)12.8 (12.2 to 13.5)12.0 (11.4 to 12.5)
Awareness of condition and treatment
 Well informed29513.8 (12.9 to 14.8)20.7 (19.9 to 21.5)18.6 (17.9 to 19.3)
 Inadequately/poorly informed111472.2 (71.0 to 73.5)69.8 (68.9 to 70.7)70.2 (69.5 to 71.0)
 Do not know17713.9 (13.0 to 14.9)9.4 (8.9 to 10.0)11.2 (10.6 to 11.7)
Self-reported severity of chronic lung disease
 Mild71344.0 (42.6 to 45.3)41.1 (40.1 to 42.1)45.0 (44.1 to 45.8)
 Moderate57835.0 (33.7 to 36.4)38.1 (37.1 to 39.1)36.4 (35.6 to 37.3)
 Severe29521.0 (19.8 to 22.1)20.8 (20.0 to 21.6)18.6 (17.9 to 19.3)
Vaccination (last 12 months)
 No152795.8 (95.3 to 96.4)96.0 (95.6 to 96.4)96.3 (96.0 to 96.6)
 Yes594.2 (3.6 to 4.7)4.0 (3.6 to 4.4)3.7 (3.4 to 4.0)
 Influenza vaccination543.5 (3.0 to 4.0)3.8 (3.4 to 4.2)3.4 (3.1 to 3.7)
 Pneumococcal vaccination141.4 (1.1 to 1.8)0.9 (0.7 to 1.1)0.9 (0.7 to 1.0)
Healthcare professional consultations (last 12 months)
 No72156.7 (55.3 to 58.1)37.0 (36.0 to 37.9)45.5 (44.6 to 46.3)
 Yes86543.3 (41.9 to 44.7)63.0 (62.1 to 64.0)54.5 (53.7 to 55.4)
 General physician53627.9 (26.6 to 29.1)38.9 (38.0 to 39.9)33.8 (33.0 to 34.6)
 Respiratory specialist30513.7 (12.7 to 14.7)23.2 (22.4 to 24.1)19.2 (18.6 to 19.9)
 Cardiologist/heart specialist743.9 (3.3 to 4.4)5.3 (4.9 to 5.8)4.7 (4.3 to 5.0)
 Traditional Chinese medicine doctor1327.2 (6.5 to 7.9)9.7 (9.1 to 10.3)8.3 (7.9 to 8.8)
 Other medical professional1045.7 (5.0 to 6.3)7.3 (6.8 to 7.8)6.6 (6.1 to 7.0)
Hospitalisation for COPD (last 12 months)
 None133387.4 (86.5 to 88.3)81.3 (80.5 to 82.1)84.7 (84.1 to 85.4)
 One1828.6 (7.8 to 9.4)14.2 (13.5 to 14.9)11.6 (11.0 to 12.1)
 ≥Two583.9 (3.4 to 4.5)4.5 (4.1 to 5.0)3.7 (3.4 to 4.0)
Oxygen therapy at home (last 12 months)
 No152396.7 (96.1 to 97.2)96.5 (96.1 to 96.9)97.2 (96.9 to 97.5)
 Yes443.3 (2.8 to 3.9)3.5 (3.1 to 3.9)2.8 (2.5 to 3.1)
Medication for COPD exacerbation (last 12 months)
 No107271.8 (70.6 to 73.1)62.4 (61.5 to 63.4)67.6 (66.8 to 68.4)
 Yes51428.2 (26.9 to 29.4)37.6 (36.6 to 38.5)32.4 (31.6 to 33.2)
 Antibiotics48326.5 (25.3 to 27.7)35.5 (34.6 to 36.4)30.5 (29.7 to 31.2)
 Oral steroids1076.1 (5.4 to 6.8)7.9 (7.4 to 8.4)6.7 (6.3 to 7.2)
 Injectable steroids703.0 (2.5 to 3.4)5.4 (5.0 to 5.9)4.4 (4.1 to 4.8)
  Number of COPD exacerbations after medication
 None118577.4 (76.3 to 78.6)70.4 (69.5 to 71.3)74.7 (74.0 to 75.4)
 One2028.4 (7.6 to 9.2)15.5 (14.8 to 16.2)12.7 (12.2 to 13.3)
 ≥Two19914.2 (13.2 to 15.2)14.1 (13.4 to 14.8)12.5 (12.0 to 13.1)
Prescribed medication (last 7 days)
 No144790.8 (89.9 to 91.6)89.8 (89.2 to 90.4)91.2 (90.7 to 91.7)
 Yes1399.2 (8.4 to 10.1)10.2 (9.6 to 10.8)8.8 (8.3 to 9.3)
 Short-acting bronchodilators252.1 (1.7 to 2.5)2.0 (1.7 to 2.2)1.6 (1.4 to 1.8)
 Long-acting bronchodilators161.5 (1.2 to 1.9)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)1.0 (0.8 to 1.2)
 Oral bronchodilators191.0 (0.7 to 1.3)1.4 (1.2 to 1.7)1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)
 Any inhalers110.5 (0.3 to 0.7)0.8 (0.6 to 0.9)0.7 (0.6 to 0.8)
 Traditional Chinese medicine332.1 (1.6 to 2.5)2.6 (2.3 to 2.9)2.1 (1.8 to 2.3)
 Other treatments946.4 (5.7 to 7.1)6.7 (6.2 to 7.2)5.9 (5.5 to 6.3)
  • *All data standardised for region, age group and gender as appropriate. Short-acting bronchodilators (short-acting beta2-agonist/short-acting muscarinic antagonist); long-acting bronchodilators (long-acting beta2-agonist/long-acting muscarinic antagonist).

  • CAT, COPD Assessment Test; COPD,  chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity.