Background Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a heterogeneous disease characterised by airflow obstruction and other morbidities such as respiratory symptoms, reduced physical activity and frequent bronchodilator use. Recent advances in personal digital monitoring devices can permit continuous collection of these data in COPD patients, but the relationships among them are not well understood.
Methods 184 individuals from a single centre of the COPDGene cohort agreed to participate in this 3-week observational study. Each participant used a smartphone to complete a daily symptom diary (EXAcerbations of Chronic pulmonary disease Tool, EXACT), wore a wrist-worn accelerometer to record continuously physical activity and completed the Clinical Visit PROactive Physical Activity in COPD questionnaire. 58 users of metered dose inhalers for rescue (albuterol) were provided with an inhaler sensor, which time stamped each inhaler actuation.
Results Rescue inhaler use was strongly correlated with E-RS:COPD score, while step counts were correlated with neither rescue use nor E-RS:COPD score. Frequent, unpatterned inhaler use pattern was associated with worse respiratory symptoms and less physical activity compared with frequent inhaler use with a regular daily pattern. There was a strong week-by-week correlation among measurements, suggesting that 1 week of monitoring is sufficient to characterise stable patients with COPD.
Discussion The study highlights the interaction and relevance of personal real-time monitoring of respiratory symptoms, physical activity and rescue medication in patients with COPD. Additionally, visual displays of longitudinal data may be helpful for disease management to help drive conversations between patients and caregivers and for risk-based monitoring in clinical trials.
- digital health
- activity monitors
- medication sensors
- patient-reported outcomes
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Collaborators COPDGene Investigators: Administrative Core: James Crapo, MD (PI), Edwin Silverman, MD, PhD (PI), Barry Make, MD, Elizabeth Regan, MD, PhD, Rochelle Lantz, Lori Stepp, Sandra Melanson Genetic Analysis Core: Terri Beaty, PhD, Barbara Klanderman, PhD, Nan Laird, PhD, Christoph Lange, PhD, Michael Cho, MD, Stephanie Santorico, PhD, John Hokanson, MPH, PhD, Dawn DeMeo, MD, MPH, Nadia Hansel, MD, MPH, Craig Hersh, MD, MPH, Peter Castaldi, MD, MSc, Merry-Lynn McDonald, PhD, Jin Zhou, MD, PhD, Manuel Mattheissen, MD, PhD, Emily Wan, MD, Megan Hardin, MD, Jacqueline Hetmanski, MS, Margaret Parker, MS, Tanda Murray, MS Imaging Core: David Lynch, MB, Joyce Schroeder, MD, John Newell, Jr., MD, John Reilly, MD, Harvey Coxson, PhD, Philip Judy, PhD, Eric Hoffman, PhD, George Washko, MD, Raul San Jose Estepar, PhD, James Ross, MSc, Mustafa Al Qaisi, MD, Jordan Zach, Alex Kluiber, Jered Sieren, Tanya Mann, Deanna Richert, Alexander McKenzie, Jaleh Akhavan, Douglas Stinson PFT QA Core, LDS Hospital, Salt Lake City, UT: Robert Jensen, PhD Biological Repository, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD: Homayoon Farzadegan, PhD, Stacey Meyerer, Shivam Chandan, Samantha Bragan Data Coordinating Center and Biostatistics, National Jewish Health, Denver, CO: Douglas Everett, PhD, Andre Williams, PhD, Carla Wilson, MS, Anna Forssen, MS, Amber Powell, Joe Piccoli Epidemiology Core, University of Colorado School of Public Health, Denver, CO: John Hokanson, MPH, PhD, Marci Sontag, PhD, Jennifer Black-Shinn, MPH, Gregory Kinney, MPH, PhDc, Sharon Lutz, MPH, PhD. COPDGene Investigators:Ann Arbor VA: Jeffrey Curtis, MD, Ella Kazerooni, MD Baylor College of Medicine, Houston, TX: Nicola Hanania, MD, MS, Philip Alapat, MD, Venkata Bandi, MD, Kalpalatha Guntupalli, MD, Elizabeth Guy, MD, Antara Mallampalli, MD, Charles Trinh, MD, Mustafa Atik, MD, Hasan Al-Azzawi, MD, Marc Willis, DO, Susan Pinero, MD, Linda Fahr, MD, Arun Nachiappan, MD, Collin Bray, MD, L. Alexander Frigini, MD, Carlos Farinas, MD, David Katz, MD, Jose Freytes, MD, Anne Marie Marciel, MD Brigham and Women’s Hospital, Boston, MA: Dawn DeMeo, MD, MPH, Craig Hersh, MD, MPH, George Washko, MD, Francine Jacobson, MD, MPH, Hiroto Hatabu, MD, PhD, Peter Clarke, MD, Ritu Gill, MD, Andetta Hunsaker, MD, Beatrice Trotman-Dickenson, MBBS, Rachna Madan, MD Columbia University, New York, NY: R. Graham Barr, MD, DrPH, Byron Thomashow, MD, John Austin, MD, Belinda D’Souza, MD Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC: Neil MacIntyre, Jr., MD, Lacey Washington, MD, H Page McAdams, MD Fallon Clinic, Worcester, MA: Richard Rosiello, MD, Timothy Bresnahan, MD, Joseph Bradley, MD, Sharon Kuong, MD, Steven Meller, MD, Suzanne Roland, MD Health Partners Research Foundation, Minneapolis, MN: Charlene McEvoy, MD, MPH, Joseph Tashjian, MD Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD: Robert Wise, MD, Nadia Hansel, MD, MPH, Robert Brown, MD, Gregory Diette, MD, Karen Horton, MD Los Angeles Biomedical Research Institute at Harbor UCLA Medical Center, Los Angeles, CA: Richard Casaburi, MD, Janos Porszasz, MD, PhD, Hans Fischer, MD, PhD, Matt Budoff, MD, Mehdi Rambod, MD Michael E. DeBakey VAMC, Houston, TX: Amir Sharafkhaneh, MD, Charles Trinh, MD, Hirani Kamal, MD, Roham Darvishi, MD, Marc Willis, DO, Susan Pinero, MD, Linda Fahr, MD, Arun Nachiappan, MD, Collin Bray, MD, L. Alexander Frigini, MD, Carlos Farinas, MD, David Katz, MD, Jose Freytes, MD, Anne Marie Marciel, MD Minneapolis VA: Dennis Niewoehner, MD, Quentin Anderson, MD, Kathryn Rice, MD, Audrey Caine, MD Morehouse School of Medicine, Atlanta, GA: Marilyn Foreman, MD, MS, Gloria Westney, MD, MS, Eugene Berkowitz, MD, PhD. National Jewish Health, Denver, CO: Russell Bowler, MD, PhD, David Lynch, MB, Joyce Schroeder, MD, Valerie Hale, MD, John Armstrong, II, MD, Debra Dyer, MD, Jonathan Chung, MD, Christian Cox, MD Temple University, Philadelphia, PA: Gerard Criner, MD, Victor Kim, MD, Nathaniel Marchetti, DO, Aditi Satti, MD, A. James Mamary, MD, Robert Steiner, MD, Chandra Dass, MD, Libby Cone, MD University of Alabama, Birmingham, AL: William Bailey, MD, Mark Dransfield, MD, Michael Wells, MD, Surya Bhatt, MD, Hrudaya Nath, MD, Satinder Singh, MD, University of California, San Diego, CA: Joe Ramsdell, MD, Paul Friedman, MD University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA: Alejandro Cornellas, MD, John Newell, Jr., MD, Edwin JR van Beek, MD, PhD University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI: Fernando Martinez, MD, MeiLan Han, MD, Ella Kazerooni, MD University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN: Christine Wendt, MD, Tadashi Allen, MD University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA: Frank Sciurba, MD, Joel Weissfeld, MD, MPH, Carl Fuhrman, MD, Jessica Bon, MD, Danielle Hooper, MD University of Texas Health Science Center at San Antonio, San Antonio, TX: Antonio Anzueto, MD, Sandra Adams, MD, Carlos Orozco, MD, Mario Ruiz, MD, Amy Mumbower, MD, Ariel Kruger, MD, Carlos Restrepo, MD, Michael Lane, MD.
Contributors RPB and RTS designed the study. MA, SJ, NL and RPB analysed data. NL and RPB interpreted data and wrote the manuscript. BEM and RTS reviewed the manuscript. MA, NL, SJ and RPB had full access to all the data in the study, interpreted the data prepared the manuscript independently and had final responsibility for the decision to submit for publication.
Funding This study was funded by the COPD Foundation (Miami, FL, USA). GSK provided digital equipment (eDiary, activity monitors, medication sensors) to the participating site (National Jewish Health, Denver, CO).
Competing interests RB, SJ and AM have no financial or personal relationships with people or organisations that could inappropriately influence this work. NL, BM and RT-S are employees of GSK and hold stock. MA is an employee of GSK.
Patient consent for publication Not required.
Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.
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