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Environmental impact of inhalers for respiratory diseases: decreasing the carbon footprint while preserving patient-tailored treatment
  1. Sara Panigone1,
  2. Federica Sandri1,
  3. Rossella Ferri2,
  4. Andrea Volpato2,
  5. Elena Nudo3 and
  6. Gabriele Nicolini3
  1. 1Corporate Marketing, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy
  2. 2Corporate Health Safety & Environment, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy
  3. 3Global Medical Affairs, Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA, Parma, Italy
  1. Correspondence to Dr Sara Panigone; s.panigone{at}


Patients with asthma and Chronic Obstructive Respiratory Disease (COPD) rely on three main device classes for inhalation therapy: metered-dose inhalers (MDIs), dry powder inhalers (DPIs) and soft-mist inhalers (SMIs). The carbon footprint (CF) of these inhalers differs with MDIs having a higher impact than DPIs and SMIs due to the propellant in MDIs. However, the certified CF of specific MDI products may differ significantly. MDIs still represent an essential option for many patients. Consequently, novel approaches shall be considered to balance environmental goals with patient health and well-being while maintaining a diverse range of choices for patients and physicians.

  • inhaler devices
  • Asthma
  • COPD pharmacology

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  • Contributors The authors declare the following contributions to this study: all authors contributed to drafting and finalising the manuscript and approved the final version for submission. SP is the guarantor, taking responsibility for work and/or conduct of study, full access to data and control of decision to publish.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests All authors are Chiesi Farmaceutici SpA employees.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.