Article Text

Clinical characteristics and outcomes of adult patients admitted with COVID-19 in East London: a retrospective cohort analysis
  1. Daryl Cheng1,
  2. Claire Calderwood1,2,
  3. Erik Skyllberg1 and
  4. Adam Ainley1
  1. 1Respiratory Department, Barking Havering and Redbridge University Hospitals NHS Trust, Romford, UK
  2. 2Division of Infection and Immunity, University College London, London, UK
  1. Correspondence to Dr Adam Ainley; adam.ainley{at}


Background Descriptions of clinical characteristics of patients hospitalised withCOVID-19, their clinical course and short-term inpatient and outpatient outcomes in deprived urban populations in the UK are still relatively sparse. We describe the epidemiology, clinical course, experience of non-invasive ventilation and intensive care, mortality and short-term sequelae of patients admitted to two large District General Hospitals across a large East London National Health Service Trust during the first wave of the pandemic.

Methods A retrospective analysis was carried out on a cohort of 1946 patients with a clinical or laboratory diagnosis of COVID-19, including descriptive statistics and survival analysis. A more detailed analysis was undertaken of a subset of patients admitted across three respiratory units in the trust.

Results Increasing age, male sex and Asian ethnicity were associated with worse outcomes. Increasing severity of chest X-ray abnormalities trended with mortality. Radiological changes persisted in over 50% of cases at early follow-up (6 weeks). Ongoing symptoms including hair loss, memory impairment, breathlessness, cough and fatigue were reported in 70% of survivors, with 39% of patients unable to return to work due to ongoing symptoms.

Conclusions Understanding the acute clinical features, course of illness and outcomes of COVID-19 will be crucial in understanding the effect of differences in risk, as well as the effectiveness of new interventions and vaccination between the successive waves of the pandemic.

  • clinical epidemiology
  • imaging/CT MRI etc
  • pneumonia
  • respiratory infection
  • viral infection
  • non invasive ventilation

This is an open access article distributed in accordance with the Creative Commons Attribution Non Commercial (CC BY-NC 4.0) license, which permits others to distribute, remix, adapt, build upon this work non-commercially, and license their derivative works on different terms, provided the original work is properly cited, appropriate credit is given, any changes made indicated, and the use is non-commercial. See:

Statistics from

Request Permissions

If you wish to reuse any or all of this article please use the link below which will take you to the Copyright Clearance Center’s RightsLink service. You will be able to get a quick price and instant permission to reuse the content in many different ways.

Supplementary materials

  • Supplementary Data

    This web only file has been produced by the BMJ Publishing Group from an electronic file supplied by the author(s) and has not been edited for content.


  • Contributors All authors contributed to the study design and concept. DC, CC, ES and a wider team in the acknowledgements contributed to data extraction. Data analysis was performed by DC and CC. The manuscript was drafted, revised and reviewed by all authors.

  • Funding The authors have not declared a specific grant for this research from any funding agency in the public, commercial or not-for-profit sectors.

  • Competing interests None declared.

  • Patient consent for publication Not required.

  • Ethics approval The data collected during this study were reviewed by the Trust Research & Development and Clinical Audit department review panel and approval was granted without the need for ethical approval as per the NHS Health Research Authority and National Institute for Health Research guidance.

  • Provenance and peer review Not commissioned; externally peer reviewed.

  • Data availability statement Data are available on reasonable request. Individual deidentified participant data (including data dictionaries) will be shared. Data that underlie the results reported in this article, after deidentification (text, tables, figures and appendices). Imaging data will not be available to view. Other documents which will be available include study protocol, statistical analysis plan, analytical code. Data will be available beginning from publication and ending five years following article publication. Data will be made available to all researchers who provide a methodologically sound proposal, for their stated aims. Proposals should be directed to

  • Supplemental material This content has been supplied by the author(s). It has not been vetted by BMJ Publishing Group Limited (BMJ) and may not have been peer-reviewed. Any opinions or recommendations discussed are solely those of the author(s) and are not endorsed by BMJ. BMJ disclaims all liability and responsibility arising from any reliance placed on the content. Where the content includes any translated material, BMJ does not warrant the accuracy and reliability of the translations (including but not limited to local regulations, clinical guidelines, terminology, drug names and drug dosages), and is not responsible for any error and/or omissions arising from translation and adaptation or otherwise.