Table 3

Effect of psychological interventions for COPD on symptoms of anxiety and depression at post-treatment

First author,Post-treatment mean (SD)
year, referenceComparisonOutcomeInterventionControlSMD (95% CI)Outcomes summary
de Godoy, 200332PR with Psychotherapy vs PR without PsychotherapyAnxiety (BAI)4.2 (3.8)9.2 (8.6)−0.73 (−1.48 to 0.01)Intervention group showed significant reduction in anxiety and depression levels; however, it did not modify physical performance
Depression (BDI)5.0 (4.5)12.3 (11.8)−0.08 (−1.54 to −0.05)
Hynninen, 201033CBT vs Enhanced standard careAnxiety (BAI)11.0 (6.1)18.7 (10.1)−0.53 (−1.08 to 0.03)CBT intervention group significantly reduced symptoms of anxiety and depression. No significant changes in control group
Depression (BDI-II)13.4 (5.9)19.7 (8.9)−0.54 (−1.10 to 0.02)
Jiang, 201234Uncertainty management vs Standard careAnxiety (SSAI, STAI)31.53 (5.74),
31.37 (5.19)
41.25 (6.86),
40.95 (7.15)
−1.54 (−1.99, −1.09),
−1.54 (−1.99 to −1.09)
Compared to the control group, the intervention group showed significant improvement in anxiety and depression scores and QoL
Depression (HADS-D)5.64 (2.24)6.62 (2.47)−0.17 (−0.56 to 0.22)
Kunik, 200135CBT vs COPD educationAnxiety (BAI)12.6 (8.7)11.9 (7.6)0.07 (−0.50 to 0.64)CBT intervention group showed decreased depression and anxiety scores compared to control group. No change in physical functioning
Depression (GDS)9.4 (6.5)8.8 (7.6)0.08 (−0.49 to 0.65)
Kunik, 200836CBT vs COPD educationAnxiety (BAI)15.89 (14.87)17.46 (14.54)−0.11 (−0.46 to 0.25)Both intervention and control groups significantly improved anxiety and depression and QoL, with no significant difference between intervention groups
Depression (BDI-II)14.19 (13.69)14.54 (13.47)−0.03 (−0.38 to 0.33)
Lamers, 201010Minimal psychological intervention vs Usual careAnxiety (SCL-A)19.85 (0.87)23.54 (0.84)−0.12 (−0.46 to 0.23)Intervention group showed lower symptoms of anxiety and depression compared to control group. Intervention group also improved QoL measures
Depression (BDI)15.04 (1.00)17.96 (0.96)−0.29 (−0.64 to 0.06)
Livermore, 201037CBT vs Routine careAnxiety (HADS-A)3.6 (2.9)7.9 (4.1)−0.71 (−1.35 to −0.08)CBT intervention group reduced anxiety symptoms and panic attacks compared to control group
Depression (HADS-D)2.9 (2.6)6.3 (4.6)−0.63 (−1.25 to 0.00)
  • BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory 1996 revision; CBT, cognitive behaviour therapy; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; GOLD, Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety subscale; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Depression subscale; PMR, Progressive Muscle Relaxation; PR, Pulmonary Rehabilitation; QoL, Quality of Life; SCL-A, Anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90; SMD, Standardized Mean Difference; SSAI, Speilberger's State Anxiety Inventory; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.