Table 2

Characteristics of psychological interventions

First author, year, referenceSampling and settingInterventionControl groupIntervention componentsNumber of sessionsSession duration (min)FrequencyDelivered byDelivery methodFollow-up
Psychological interventions
de Godoy, 200332Patients with COPD referred from the University Department of Respiratory Diseases to attend an outpatient pulmonary rehabilitation groupPsychotherapy integrated into the pulmonary rehabilitation programPulmonary rehabilitation program without psychotherapyAddressing patients’ psychosocial needs, social, marital, work, health, interpersonal philosophy, habits.
Cognitive and logotherapy techniques were used
12Not reportedOnce per week over 12 weeksNot reportedNot reportedAssumed to be after 12 weeks
Hynninen, 201033Patients with COPD recruited from an outpatient pulmonary clinic at a University hospital and by newspaper advertisementCBTEnhanced standard carePsychoeducation/awareness, relaxation, cognitive therapy, behavioural activation, fear-based exposure, sleep management skills7120Once per week over 7 weeksMasters-level psychology student, sessions videotaped and monitored by a specialist in clinical psychologyGroup session of 4–6 participants2 months and 8 months
Jiang, 201234Han Chinese COPD outpatients recruited at Xiangya Hospital of Central South UniversityUncertainty managementStandard careCognitive coping strategies on uncertainty regarding exacerbations delivered on audio CD, self-help manual on behavioural strategies, COPD education, management skills, instructional booklet and cards, four telephone contacts delivered by nurses in first 4 weeks where one cognitive coping skill was practised over the phone435Once per week over 4 weeksIntervention nursesIndividual—by phone call10 months
Kunik, 200135Patients with COPD recruited from an academically affiliated Veterans Affairs Hospital and local newspaperCBTCOPD educationEducation on role of psychological distress in chronic illness, components of anxiety, cognitive behaviour skills in coping such as relaxation, diaphragmatic breathing, posture, exposure to anxiety provoking situations. Provision of workbooks and audiotapes to review skills and practice exercises1120Once onlyBoard-certified geropsychiatristGroup session1 call per week for 6 weeks post-treatment
Kunik, 200836Patients with COPD identified and recruited through an administrative database at the attended medical centre and flyer and advertisement methodsCBTCOPD educationPsycho-education/awareness on physiological, cognitive and behavioural symptoms of anxiety and depression, relaxation, cognitive therapy, problem solving, sleep management, increasing pleasurable activity, decreasing anxiety-related avoidance860Once over week over 8 weeksPsychology interns and post-doctoral fellows with experience in CBTGroup sessions of up to 10 patients4, 8 and 12 weeks
Lamers, 201010Patients with COPD recruited from general practices. Home settingMinimal psychological interventionUsual careNurse-led intervention addressing the patient's feelings, cognitions and behaviours, patient diary keeping, awareness of mood relation to behaviour, self-management training to alter behaviour, action plans4 (average) tailored to individual patients60Varied number of sessions over a period of at most 3 monthsNurses trained by a GP, psychologist and psychiatristIndividual3 months
Livermore, 201037Patients with COPD identified in the respiratory medicine department outpatient clinic of the teaching hospitalCBTRoutine carePsycho-education, awareness of stress response on breathing, cycle of panic anxiety, cognitive challenging of negative thoughts, pursed lip breathing, activity planning, pacing and problem solving460Once per week over 4 weeksExperienced clinical psychologistIndividual6, 12 and 18 months
  • CBT, cognitive behaviour therapy; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GP, general practitioner; PR, pulmonary rehabilitation.