First author, year, location and reference | Study design | Sample size (n) | Sex (% men) | Mean age | COPD severity (GOLD stage) | Anxiety outcomes measure | Depression outcomes measure | Baseline mean anxiety score | Baseline mean depression score |
---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|---|
Psychological interventions | |||||||||
de Godoy, 2003, Brazil32 | RCT | I=14 | I=85.7 | I=62.1 (SD 14.9) | Mild to severe (stage 1–3) | BAI | BDI | I=12.9 (SD 6.9) | I=13.7 (SD 8.9) |
C=16 | C=62.5 | C=58.8 (SD 11.8) | C=10.9 (SD 9.8) | C=14.9 (SD 11.5) | |||||
Hynninen, 2010, Norway33 | RCT | I=25 | I=56 | I=59.3 (SD 7.6) | Moderate to severe (stage 2–3) | BAI | BDI-II | I=17.5 (SD 7.3) | I=20.7 (SD 8.6) |
C=26 | C=42.3 | C=62.6 (SD 9.9) | C=17.5 (SD 9.5) | C=20.5 (SD 9.7) | |||||
Jiang, 2012, China34 | RCT | I=49 | I=71.4 | I=65.2 (SD 8.96) | Moderate to severe (stage 2–3) | SSAI, STAI | HADS-D | I=43.69 (SD 7.13), 42.91 (SD 6.78) | I=7.16 (SD 3.02) |
C=47 | C=68.1 | C=64.7 (SD 8.05) | C=42.83 (SD 7.25), 42.46 (SD 7.04) | C=7.08 (SD 2.92) | |||||
Kunik, 2001, USA 35 | RCT | I=21 | I=83 | I=71.3 (SD 5.9) | Moderate to severe (stage 2–3) | BAI | GDS | I=15.3 (SD 9.2) | I=11.5 (SD 7.3) |
C=27 | C=83 | C=71.3 (SD 5.9) | C=10.0 (SD 6.8) | C=7.7 (SD 5.4) | |||||
Kunik, 2008, USA36 | RCT | I=118 | I=96.6 | I=66.1 (SD 10.1) | Moderate to severe (stage 2–3) | BAI | BDI-II | I=22.67 (SD 14.22) | I=23.44 (SD 12.49) |
C=120 | C=95.8 | C=66.5 (SD 10.4) | C=23.05 (SD 13.86) | C=21.12 (SD 12.09) | |||||
Lamers, 2010, the Netherlands10 | RCT | I=96 | I=61.5 | I=70.5 (SD 6.3) | COPD severity not reported | SCL-A | BDI | I=20.6 (SD 6.2) | I=17.1 (SD 6.5) |
C=91 | C=58.2 | C=71.5 (SD 7.1) | C=20.4 (SD 7.3) | C=18.3 (SD 7.2) | |||||
Livermore, 2010, Australia37 | RCT | I=21 | I=43 | I=73.2 (SD 6.4) | Moderate to severe (stage 2–3) | HADS-A | HADS-D | I=5.2 (SD 2.9) | I=3.9 (SD 2.1) |
C=20 | C=45 | C=73.5 (SD 8.1) | C=5.9 (SD 2.7) | C=4.1 (SD 2.8) |
BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory 1996 revision; C, Control group; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; GOLD, Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety subscale; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Depression subscale; I, Intervention group; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SCL-A, Anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90; SSAI, Speilberger's State Anxiety Inventory; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.