Table 1

Characteristics of included studies and baseline measurements

First author, year, location and referenceStudy designSample size (n)Sex (% men)Mean ageCOPD severity (GOLD stage)Anxiety outcomes measureDepression outcomes measureBaseline mean anxiety scoreBaseline mean depression score
Psychological interventions
de Godoy, 2003, Brazil32RCTI=14I=85.7I=62.1 (SD 14.9)Mild to severe (stage 1–3)BAIBDII=12.9 (SD 6.9)I=13.7 (SD 8.9)
C=16C=62.5C=58.8 (SD 11.8)C=10.9 (SD 9.8)C=14.9 (SD 11.5)
Hynninen, 2010, Norway33RCTI=25I=56I=59.3 (SD 7.6)Moderate to severe (stage 2–3)BAIBDI-III=17.5 (SD 7.3)I=20.7 (SD 8.6)
C=26C=42.3C=62.6 (SD 9.9)C=17.5 (SD 9.5)C=20.5 (SD 9.7)
Jiang, 2012, China34RCTI=49I=71.4I=65.2 (SD 8.96)Moderate to severe (stage 2–3)SSAI, STAIHADS-DI=43.69 (SD 7.13),
42.91 (SD 6.78)
I=7.16 (SD 3.02)
C=47C=68.1C=64.7 (SD 8.05)C=42.83 (SD 7.25),
42.46 (SD 7.04)
C=7.08 (SD 2.92)
Kunik, 2001, USA 35RCTI=21I=83I=71.3 (SD 5.9)Moderate to severe (stage 2–3)BAIGDSI=15.3 (SD 9.2)I=11.5 (SD 7.3)
C=27C=83C=71.3 (SD 5.9)C=10.0 (SD 6.8)C=7.7 (SD 5.4)
Kunik, 2008, USA36RCTI=118I=96.6I=66.1 (SD 10.1)Moderate to severe (stage 2–3)BAIBDI-III=22.67 (SD 14.22)I=23.44 (SD 12.49)
C=120C=95.8C=66.5 (SD 10.4)C=23.05 (SD 13.86)C=21.12 (SD 12.09)
Lamers, 2010, the Netherlands10RCTI=96I=61.5I=70.5 (SD 6.3)COPD severity not reportedSCL-ABDII=20.6 (SD 6.2)I=17.1 (SD 6.5)
C=91C=58.2C=71.5 (SD 7.1)C=20.4 (SD 7.3)C=18.3 (SD 7.2)
Livermore, 2010, Australia37RCTI=21I=43I=73.2 (SD 6.4)Moderate to severe (stage 2–3)HADS-AHADS-DI=5.2 (SD 2.9)I=3.9 (SD 2.1)
C=20C=45C=73.5 (SD 8.1)C=5.9 (SD 2.7)C=4.1 (SD 2.8)
  • BAI, Beck Anxiety Inventory; BDI, Beck Depression Inventory; BDI-II, Beck Depression Inventory 1996 revision; C, Control group; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; GDS, Geriatric Depression Scale; GOLD, Global initiative for chronic Obstructive Lung Disease; HADS-A, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Anxiety subscale; HADS-D, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale—Depression subscale; I, Intervention group; RCT, randomised controlled trial; SCL-A, Anxiety subscale of the Symptom Checklist-90; SSAI, Speilberger's State Anxiety Inventory; STAI, State-Trait Anxiety Inventory.