Table 3

Age and region standardised prevalence of AFO based on LLN definition, by patient characteristics

CharacteristicsMenWomen
RuralUrbanRuralUrban
NPer centNPer centNPer centNPer cent
Overall118 8379.291 2204.8167 7277.7134 7114.8
Age group (%)
 30–3917 2046.212 3612.830 4786.917 6954.7
 40–4932 9326.326 2303.352 7435.640 7074.1
 50–5937 1008.726 5714.652 3717.141 4004.3
 60–6923 54412.917 7666.925 13710.425 2695.9
 70–79805716.882929.6699815.396407.8
 p for trend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
BMI group (%)
 <18.5682118.0259910.8868012.742597.7
 18.5–2485 0139.550 4825.5107 8327.878 0235.3
 ≥2527 0025.938 1393.451 2146.052 4293.9
p for trend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Smoking category (%)
 Never13 4867.816 7963.5158 4017.3128 7164.8
 Occasional13 1237.610 4873.333897.821334.2
 Ex-regular13 9809.713 9135.415617.810836.2
 Current regular78 2489.550 0245.343769.827795.8
 Ever regular92 2289.663 9375.459379.738625.7
p for heterogeneity<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Pack years*
 <1018 2118.412 3224.2283110.019985.7
 10–1921 3248.816 7864.9157411.09685.1
 >2052 69310.434 8296.0153213.88969.0
p for trend<0.0001<0.00010.24020.1224
Age started smoking (years)
 <2032 03110.521 1596.6208313.684610.1
 20–2435 0219.723 3755.3126814.06435.4
 25–2911 5729.110 0975.07248.94775.2
 ≥3013 6048.393064.518629.918965.2
p for trend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Number of cigarettes smoked daily (or equivalent)
 1–466059.329924.617269.69615.5
 5–1425 3769.219 6815.2280511.319825.2
 15–2441 6319.830 5585.5121212.18016.8
 ≥2518 61610.110 7065.81948.91185.5
p for trend0.00190.02270.35530.1128
Reason for stopping among ex-smokers
 Physical illness744213.263868.7100131.84426.7
 Other reason65388.875274.456021.96414.5
p for heterogeneity<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.0918
Passive smoking†
 No35469.462114.119 7839.021 6434.8
 Yes99407.410 5853.3138 6187.1107 0734.7
p for heterogeneity0.00010.1538<0.00010.3864
Highest education completed
 No formal education15 04312.036068.353 2389.923 2545.5
 Primary school52 10310.017 9835.867 7267.427 3094.8
 Middle/high school49 6217.655 1674.245 6906.371 7724.4
 College/university20707.114 4644.310735.712 3763.9
p for trend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Household income (¥)
 2500–499917 02212.924138.425 25610.554615.7
 5000–999927 93910.973196.243 7758.515 5215.4
 10 000–19 99934 3269.225 1845.448 5067.240 8875.2
 ≥20 00039 5506.756 3044.350 1906.172 8424.4
p for trend<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001<0.0001
Currently cooks with coal/wood
 No85 9658.786 4284.731 8727.5122 9504.8
 Yes32 87210.147926.5135 8557.611 7615.5
p for heterogeneity<0.0001<0.0001<0.00010.7517
Ever cooked with coal/wood
 No80 0058.660 5914.612 3817.852 5234.6
 Yes38 83210.030 6295.2155 3467.682 1885.0
p for heterogeneity<0.00010.0014<0.00010.0160
  • *Restricted to ever regular smokers.

  • †Among never smokers, exposed to others’ tobacco smoke regularly at home or work.

  • BMI, body mass index.