Table 3

Associations between lifestyle factors and experience of respiratory alarm symptoms for women

At least one respiratory alarm symptomProlonged coughingShortness of breathCoughing up bloodProlonged hoarseness
ORAdjusted OR*95% CIPtrendORAdjusted OR*95% CIPtrendORAdjusted OR*95% CIPtrendORAdjusted OR*95% CIPtrendORAdjusted OR*95% CIPtrend
Age (years)<0.001<0.001<0.0010.529<0.001
 20–391111111111
 40–591.020.930.85 to 1.031.201.120.98 to 1.280.890.810.72 to 0.911.201.060.30 to 3.701.051.010.83 to 1.23
 60–791.551.521.38 to 1.361.962.001.75 to 2.281.271.241.09 to 1.411.711.770.51 to 6.081.801.771.46 to 2.16
 >802.822.562.25 to 2.672.913.252.52 to 4.182.392.301.81 to 2.944.104.193.06 to 5.74
Smoking status
 Never1111111111
 Former1.321.251.15 to 1.361.131.020.90 to 1.151.451.441.29 to 1.611.841.900.68 to 5.321.201.110.94 to 1.31
 Current2.392.452.25 to 2.682.893.252.52 to 4.181.962.071.84 to 2.331.401.390.40 to 4.811.661.701.43 to 2.02
Alcohol intake (units/week)<0.001‡<0.001‡0.468‡0.032
 01111111111
 1–70.550.610.55 to 0.680.620.680.59 to 0.780.440.520.46 to 0.600.490.380.12 to 1.210.650.710.57 to 0.88
 8–210.790.740.65 to 0.840.990.920.77 to 1.090.540.530.45 to 0.630.480.440.08 to 1.810.860.810.62 to 1.05
 ≥221.451.260.94 to 1.682.021.671.19 to 2.350.710.650.42 to 0.991.401.250.72 to 2.15
Body mass index
 Underweight (<18.5)1.541.331.07 to 1.641.611.341.02 to 1.761.731.491.14 to 1.932.172.070.26 to 16.431.711.481.02 to 2.15
 Normal (18.5–24.9)1111111111
 Overweight (25–29.9)1.181.171.07 to 1.641.241.231.10 to 1.371.171.151.03 to 1.290.980.900.30 to 2.651.111.070.91 to 1.26
 Obese (≥30)1.601.661.51 to 1.841.601.711.50 to 1.951.901.901.67 to 2.151.141.000.27 to 3.711.331.351.11 to 1.64
  • Bold indicates statistical significance at 5% level.

  • *Adjusted for: age, smoking status, alcohol intake and body mass index.

  • †Test for trend: Statistically significant Ptest for trend<0.05.

  • ‡Only tested for those who drink more than 0 units/week.