Table 3

HR and 95% CI for alcohol intake at baseline in relation to risk of developing active tuberculosis, stratified by smoking status, the Singapore Chinese Health Study 1993–2014

Alcohol intakeNon-current smokers
(n=48 869)
Current smokers
(n=11 376)
p Value for interaction†
CasesHR (95% CI)*CasesHR (95% CI)*
Non-drinkers6071.003371.00
Monthly to weekly840.70 (0.55 to 0.89)1240.96 (0.77 to 1.18)0.02
1 drink/day80.78 (0.39 to 1.58)221.25 (0.81 to 1.93)0.28
2+ drinks/day100.93 (0.49 to 1.77)571.51 (1.11 to 2.05)0.08
  • *Adjusted for age at recruitment (years), year of baseline interview (1993–1995, 1996–1998), gender, dialect group (Hokkien, Cantonese), level of education (no formal education, primary school, secondary school or higher), body mass index (kg/m2), total energy intake (kcal/day), baseline history of diabetes (yes, no), tea intake (none, monthly, weekly, daily) and energy-adjusted daily intake of protein, cholesterol, marine omega-3, omega-6 fatty acids, vitamin A and vitamin C (quartiles), smoking status (never, former, current), cigarettes per day (non-current smokers, ≤6, 7–12, 13–22, 23–32, 33–42, 43+), years of smoking (non-current smokers, ≤19 years, 20–39 years, 40+ years).

  • †p for interaction was derived from the product term of smoking status and alcohol intake categories.