Table 4

HR and 95% CI for joint effect of alcohol intake and cigarette smoking status in relation to risk of developing active tuberculosis, the Singapore Chinese Health Study 1993–2014

Alcohol intakeNon-current smokersCurrent smokers
CasesHR (95% CI)*CasesHR (95% CI)*
Non-drinkers6071.003371.82 (1.57 to 2.10)
Monthly to weekly840.68 (0.54 to 0.86)1241.81 (1.47 to 2.22)
1 drink/day80.79 (0.39 to 1.59)222.31 (1.50 to 3.56)
2+ drinks/day100.87 (0.46 to 1.64)573.16 (2.35 to 4.24)
  • *Adjusted for age at recruitment (years), year of baseline interview (1993 to 1995, 1996 to 1998), gender, dialect group (Hokkien, Cantonese), level of education (no formal education, primary school, secondary school or higher), body mass index (kg/m2), total energy intake (kcal/day), baseline history of diabetes (yes, no), tea intake (none, monthly, weekly, daily) and energy-adjusted daily intake of protein, cholesterol, marine omega-3, omega-6 fatty acids, vitamin A and vitamin C (quartiles).