Table 1

Baseline characteristics of study subjects by frequency of alcohol intake in never/former and current smokers, the Singapore Chinese Health Study 1993–2014

Baseline characteristicsAlcohol intake of never/former smokers (n=48 869)Alcohol intake of current smokers (n=11 376)
Non-drinkerMonthlyWeeklyDailyNon-drinkerMonthlyWeeklyDaily
No. of subjects (%)41 485 (84.9)3234 (6.6)3198 (6.5)952 (1.9)7565 (66.5)1095 (9.6)1638 (14.4)1078 (9.5)
Mean (SD) age at recruitment, years56.4±8.154.6±7.654.6±7.556.4±8.058.3±7.9 55.4±7.755.1±7.556.0±7.3
Mean (SD) body mass index, kg/m2 23.3±3.323.3±3.223.3±3.123.1±3.122.7±3.222.7±3.422.7±3.321.8±3.0
Gender
 Men12 078 (29.1)1775 (54.9)2166 (67.7)642 (67.4)5734 (75.8)978 (89.3)1541 (94.1)1000 (92.8)
 Women29 407 (70.9)1459 (45.1)1032 (32.3)310 (32.6)1831 (24.2)117 (10.7)97 (5.9)78 (7.2)
Dialect group
 Cantonese19 735 (47.6)1789 (55.3)1723 (53.9)446 (46.9)2770 (36.6)443 (40.5)656 (40.1)415 (38.5)
 Hokkien21 750 (52.4)1445 (44.7)1475 (46.1)506 (53.2)4795 (63.4)652 (59.5)982 (60.0)663 (61.5)
Level of education
 No formal education12 670 (30.5)507 (15.7)498 (15.6)205 (21.5)2117 (28.0)153 (14.0)250 (15.3)210 (19.5)
 Primary school17 294 (41.7)1379 (42.6)1458 (45.6)451 (47.4)3845 (50.8)587 (53.6)886 (54.1)616 (57.1)
 Secondary school or above11 521 (27.8)1348 (41.7)1242 (38.8)296 (31.1)1603 (21.2)355 (32.4)502 (30.7)252 (23.4)
 History of diabetes4147 (10.0)174 (5.4)172 (5.4)63 (6.6)652 (8.6)64 (5.8)81 (5.0)48 (4.5)
 Mean (SD) Total calorie, kcal/day1477±5141694±5601846±6401962±7611571±5821762±6341842±5991983±753
Mean (SD) energy-adjusted intake
 Protein, g/day59.8±9.459.7±9.858.4±10.953.6±12.858.6±10.159.1±10.256.2±11.149.8±13.1
 Cholesterol, mg/day170±67.6176±71.2179±83.4168±96.2183±86.5190±89.8192±95.5184±116
 Marine omega-3 fatty acid, g/day0.32±0.20.32±0.20.32±0.20.30±0.20.32±0.20.32±0.20.32±0.20.29±0.2
 Omega-6 fatty acid, g/day8.2±3.18.2±3.37.8±3.76.9±3.87.3±2.97.4±3.26.7±3.15.5±3.3
 Vitamin A, IU/day5388±29775418±30965086±31624402±32334389±27114323±26303991±27463232±2634
 Vitamin C, mg/day110±137119±152108±14096.6±16779.5±98.280±89.474.2±12252.6±72.9
  • Values are numbers (percentages) unless stated otherwise.