Table 1

Subject group characteristics

Sagittal–coronal profileControlHypokyphosis with scoliosis (HypoS)Normal kyphosis with scoliosis (NormS)Hyperkyphosis with scoliosis (HyperS)Kruskal-Wallis test (P value)
Sample size, n1511185
Age, year16.3±5.120.2±7.817.1±10.413.2±5.30.119
Sex, n (female, %)12 (80)8 (72)12 (66)3 (60)0.806
XR scoliosis Cobb75.6±16.865.2±21.677.4±17.10.273
XR kyphosis Cobb T5–T123.3±13.330.3±12.560.8±6.5<0.0001§¶**
CT scoliosis Cobb4.1±2.164.1±15.959.3±19.477.2±17.4<0.0001*†‡
CT kyphosis Cobb T5–T1221.1±7.1−4.6±12.119.8±6.551.0±9.2<0.0001*‡§¶**
CT kyphosis Cobb T2–T1232.1±7.53.4±15.628.1±10.352.7±8.9<0.0005*‡§¶**
T-level count6.4±0.96.5±1.85.8±1.30.590
Apical vertebra9.0±1.18.3±1.18.0±1.40.311
  • Values are mean±SD.

  • Dunn’s post-hoc test: *P<0.05 for control vs HypoS, †P<0.05 for control vs NormS, ‡P<0.05 for control vs HyperS, §P<0.05 for HypoS vs NormS, ¶P<0.05 for HypoS vs HyperS, **P<0.05 for NormS vs HyperS.

  • XR, whole-spine standing radiographs.