Table 1

Distribution of birth and socioeconomic characteristics at enrolment in the intervention arms

Surveillance
Total (N=4382)Active (N=2215)Passive (N=2167)
n (%)n (%)n (%)
 Gender (Boys)2276 (51.9)1132 (51.1)1144 (52.8)
Birth factors
 Birth weight
  <2500 g430 (9.8)210 (9.5)220 (10.2)
  =2500 g846 (19.4)415 (18.8)431 (19.9)
  >2500 g3096 (70.8)1584 (71.7)1512 (69.9)
 Type of delivery
  Normal3839 (87.6)1920 (86.7)1919 (88.6)
  Caesarean section543 (12.4)295 (13.3)248 (11.4)
Socioeconomic characteristics
 Religion
  Hindu3751 (85.6)1846 (83.3)1905 (87.9)
  Others*631 (14.4)369 (16.7)262 (12.1)
 Caste
  Dalit/Harijan†850 (19.4)441 (19.9)409 (18.9)
  Others3528 (80.5)1772 (80.0)1756 (81.0)
 Highest education achieved by mother
  Illiterate1337 (30.5)652 (29.4)685 (31.6)
  Primary (upto class 5)1251 (28.5)615 (27.8)636 (29.3)
  Secondary (upto class 7)803 (18.3)416 (18.8)387 (17.9)
  High School (upto class 10)729 (16.6)394 (17.8)335 (15.5)
  Higher secondary (class 11–12)151 (3.4)76 (3.4)75 (3.5)
  College111 (2.5)62 (2.8)49 (2.3)
 Highest education achieved by father
  Illiterate979 (22.4)453 (20.5)526 (24.3)
  Primary1083 (24.8)561 (25.4)522 (24.1)
  Secondary1021 (23.4)513 (23.3)508 (23.5)
  High school896 (20.5)475 (21.5)421 (19.5)
  Higher secondary209 (4.8)101 (4.6)108 (5.0)
  College181 (4.1)103 (4.7)78 (3.6)
 Fuel used for cooking‡
  LPG§/Gas333 (7.6)211 (9.5)122 (5.6)
  Others4049 (92.4)2004 (90.5)2045 (94.4)
 Type of walls of the house¶
  Brick3338 (76.2)1707 (77.1)1631 (75.3)
  Others1044 (23.8)508 (22.9)536 (24.7)
Exposure to TB
 TB in household past 1 year42 (1.0)25 (1.1)17 (0.8)
 Current TB in household28 (0.6)10 (0.5)18 (0.8)
  • *Others included Muslims (14.0%) and Christians (0.4%).

  • †Hindu's not belonging to a caste.

  • ‡Wood is used as a low socioeconomic indicator, higher socioeconomic groups would use kerosene, electricity and LPG.

  • §Liquefied petroleum gas.

  • ¶Brick is used as high socioeconomic indicator, low socioeconomic groups would have walls made of mud, bamboo and so on.

  • **Reported as number of population unit. Details of population units are given in the text.

  • ††The Active surveillance group had a 2 monthly home visit by a study team field worker. The passive surveillance group were contacted only at the start of the study and at study close out.

  • LPG, liquefied petroleum gas; TB, tuberculosis.