Table 1

Demographic characteristics and cognitive function of the control group and COPD group

CharacteristicControl subjects (n=25)Patients with COPD (n=25)P values
Age (years)65.32±7.8567.84±8.160.27
Gender (% female)58.3041.700.40
Education (% of each group)
 None16520.03*
 Other08
 GCSE3220
 A level208
 Diploma88
 Degree244
Cigarette pack-years4.16±9.7158.33±23.80<0.001*
Charlson Comorbidity Index
 0230<0.001*
 1215
 206
 ≥304
MMSE29.28±0.8428.08±1.660.07
FSRP6.08±3.136.96±4.020.39
HAD scale6.76±5.0012.05±8.160.009*
Executive function12.29±2.579.63±2.21<0.001*
Working memory11.02±2.489.38±2.280.02*
Processing speed11.54±2.249.22±2.550.001*
Memory (all)10.93±3.009.33±2.710.05
Visual memory10.74±4.579.12±4.720.22
Verbal memory11.12±2.749.54±2.060.03*
  • Data are presented as mean±SD except where indicated otherwise. P values were obtained using independent samples t-test/Pearson’s χ2 test depending on normality of distribution.

  • *Statistically significant result.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; FSRP, Framingham’s Stroke Risk Profile; GCSE, General Certificate of Secondary Education; HAD, Hospital Anxiety and Depression; MMSE, Mini-Mental State Examination.