Table 3

Patients randomised to cycling: temporary exemptions, reasons for not cycling on eligible days and advanced life support received during cycling

Days with temporary exemptions (n=95)N (%)*
ICU team perception that patient is medically unstable for other reasons (eg, uncontrolled bleeding, impending intubation)48 (50.5)
Cardiac25 (26.3)
 MAP <60 or >110 or out of range10 (10.5)
 Active myocardial ischaemia or unstable/uncontrolled arrhythmia6 (6.3)
 Increase in inotropes/vasopressors within last 2 hours5 (5.3)
 HR <40 or >140 bpm4 (4.2)
Respiratory12 (12.6)
 Neuromuscular blocker within last 4 hours7 (7.4)
 SpO2<88% or out of range5 (5.3)
Other reasons29 (30.5)
 Change in goals to palliative care14 (14.7)
 Severe agitation (RASS>2)8 (8.4)
 Uncontrolled pain7 (7.4)
Eligible days where cycling did not occur (n=38) N (%)†
Therapist not available—workload16 (8.7)
Patient declined14 (7.6)
No CYCLE-trained PT available2 (1.1)
Other patient activity prioritised2 (1.1)
Family declined1 (0.5)
Patient not available—out of ICU or in ICU (procedures, tests)1 (0.5)
Bike not available1 (0.5)
Missing data1 (0.5)
Advanced life support received during cycling sessions (n=146)N (%)
Mechanical ventilation114 (78.1)
 Oral endotracheal tube98 (67.1)
 Tracheostomy13 (8.9)
 Non-invasive3 (2.1)
Days with temporary exemptions (n=95) N(%) *
 Renal replacement therapy6 (4.1)
 Vasopressor or inotrope infusion12 (8.2)
  • *Totals sum greater than 95 because each day could have more than one temporary exemption. Data are reasons as a proportion of 95 days.

  • †Total sum greater than 38 because each day could have more than one reason for not cycling. Data are reasons as a proportion of 184 eligible days. Of 38 days, 20 (52.6%) patients missed 1 or more eligible days of cycling; Therapist factors: 6 (30.0%) patients did not receive cycling due to physical therapist workload; 4 (20.0%) patients did not receive cycling because the physical therapist prioritised other therapeutic activities; patient factors: 11 (55.0%) patients declined 1 or more cycling sessions and 2 (10.0%) patients did not receive cycling due to other reasons.

  • bpm, beats per minute; HR, heart rate; ICU, intensive care unit; MAP, mean arterial pressure; PT, physiotherapist; RASS, Richmond Agitation and Sedation Scale.