Table 1

Demographics and clinical characteristics of study participants

CharacteristicsNon-smoking controls (n=11)PRISm (n=15)Smoking controls (n=72)GOLD 1 (n=9)GOLD 2 (n=36)GOLD 3 (n=24)GOLD 4 (n=13)P value
Age (years)58 (9)68 (6)63 (7)64 (7)67 (8)69 (7)66 (7)<0.001
Male, n (%)5 (45%)6 (40%)33 (46%)4 (44%)19 (53%)12 (50%)7 (54%)0.980
Body mass index (kg/m2)25 (4)30 (6)28 (6)24 (4)30 (6)30 (8)27 (5)0.020
Current smoker, n (%)0 (0%)3 (20%)25 (35%)3 (33%)10 (28%)6 (25%)1 (8%)0.427
Smoking pack-year historyn/a43 (25)39 (23)38 (20)53 (30)55 (25)43 (17)0.020
Chronic cough, n (%)0 (0%)1 (7%)14 (19%)1 (11%)20 (56%)11 (46%)5 (38%)<0.001
Chronic phlegm, n (%)0 (0%)3 (20%)15 (21%)5 (56%)16 (44%)10 (42%)5 (38%)0.011
History of wheeze, n (%)1 (9%)8 (53%)25 (35%)5 (56%)19 (53%)18 (75%)11 (85%)<0.001
FEV1, (% predicted)105 (11)72 (6)99 (12)91 (8)63 (9)41 (6)24 (5)<0.001
6 min walking distance (m)581 (69)413 (132)483 (94)459 (134)380 (110)322 (148)278 (120)<0.001
BODE index0.3 (0.5)0.8 (1.3)0.4 (0.7)0.7 (0.9)1.7 (1.5)3.0 (1.3)4.8 (1.1)<0.001
Emphysema LAA% (−950HU)1.3 (1.3)1.0 (1.0)1.6 (1.7)13.8 (9.8)8.6 (7.9)15.8 (13.2)30 (17.1)<0.001
Lung density (g/L)80 (11)92 (16)83 (15)54 (18)68 (19)55 (21)35 (19)<0.001
Pi10 (mm)3.5 (0.1)3.6 (0.1)3.6 (0.1)3.6 (0.1)3.6 (0.1)3.7 (0.1)3.7 (0.1)<0.001
MMRC dyspnoea score ≥2, n (%)0 (0%)4 (27%)13 (18%)4 (44%)22 (61%)16 (67%)13 (100%)<0.001
SGRQ total score2 (4)21 (20)13 (14)24 (16)35 (19)40 (20)51 (18)<0.001
Prior year exacerbation historyn/a0.2 (0.6)0.1 (0.3)0.6 (1.1)0.8 (1.3)0.5 (0.7)2.0 (1.8)<0.001
Supplemental oxygen use, n (%)0 (0%)3 (20%)4 (6%)1 (11%)18 (50%)17 (71%)13 (100%)<0.001
Cardiovascular disease, n (%)2 (18%)3 (20%)8 (11%)2 (22%)9 (25%)6 (25%)2 (15%)0.602
High blood pressure, n (%)2 (18%)6 (40%)29 (40%)3 (33%)16 (44%)12 (50%)3 (23%)0.518
Gastro-oesophageal reflux, n (%)2 (18%)4 (27%)15 (21%)3 (33%)16 (44%)9 (38%)5 (38%)0.210
Diabetes, n (%)0 (0%)0 (0%)8 (11%)0 (0%)4 (11%)3 (13%)2 (15%)0.570
  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease.