Table 3

Pneumonia hospitalisation and all-cause mortality (separate endpoints)

Time from exposureAdjusted HR (95% CI)
Pneumonia hospitalisation
 1 month1.4 (1.0 to 2.2)
 3 months1.2 (1.0 to 1.6)
 6 months1.2 (1.0 to 1.4)
 1 year1.2 (1.0 to 1.3)
All-cause mortality
 1 month5.1 (1.7 to 15.6)
 3 months2.5 (1.5 to 4.3)
 6 months2.0 (1.5 to 2.6)
 1 year1.8 (1.5 to 2.2)
  • Secondary endpoints: Adjusted hazard ratios (aHR) of pneumonia hospitalisation and all-cause mortality for outpatients with acute exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease who were treated with a long-course oral corticosteroid (OCS) treatment during the 1-year follow-up. The reference group was the short-course OCS treatment. All analyses were adjusted for age, sex, inhaled corticosteroids, smoking status, calendar year, FEV1% predicted, Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale, body mass index, heart failure, atrial fibrillation, myocardial infarction, hypertension, diabetes mellitus, peripheral vascular disease, cerebrovascular disease, renal failure and depression.