Table 1

Inclusion and exclusion criteria

IncludedExcluded
ParticipantsPhase 1—scoping review: adult patients with one or more chronic condition (as defined in Taylor et al,10 reproduced in online supplementary material, table E)
Phase 2—systematic review: adult patients with COPD
  • Patients who do not reside independently in the community

  • Patients younger than 18 years

  • Patients with dental conditions

  • Interventions directed at parents/caregivers

  • Interventions targeted at clinicians

  • Interventions targeted at organisations

Intervention
  • Self-management programme

  • Patient activation programme

  • Expert patient programme

  • Health literacy programme

  • Disease management

  • Integrated management

  • Self-taught self-management

  • Patient education without self-management component

  • Case management

  • Cognitive-behavioural therapy

  • Medication therapy management

  • Electronic reminders

  • Pharmaceutical clinical trial

Specific to COPD:
  • Physical activity

  • Exercise

  • Pulmonary rehabilitation

  • Remote monitoring

Comparator
  • Usual care (no intervention)

  • Head-to-head comparison of two interventions in same population

No control group
OutcomesPrimary:
  • Change in healthcare utilisation

    • Total cost of care

    • Hospitalisations

    • ED visits

    • Readmissions

    • GP/outpatient visits

    • Exacerbations

    • Other


Secondary:
  • Change in quality of life

  • Change in PROMs/PREMs

  • Mortality

  • Intention to change behaviour

  • Self-efficacy

  • Patient activation

  • Health literacy

  • Medication adherence

  • Compliance

  • Physical activity

  • Self-reported outcomes

Study design
  • Randomised controlled trial

  • Interrupted time series

  • Difference in differences

  • Other quasi-experimental designs

  • Case–control

  • Case study

  • Ethnography

  • Qualitative results only

  • Systematic/scoping review

  • Protocol—no results

  • Feasibility study

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ED, emergency department; GP, general practitioner; PREM, patient-reported experience measure; PROM, patient-reported outcome measure.