Table 1

Baseline characteristics* of 54 046 individuals according to different phenotypes of obstructive airway disease

No
respiratory
disease
(n=42 058)
Asthma with
early onset
(n=1215)
Asthma with
late-onset
(n=904)
COPD
GOLD stage 1+2
(n=7447)
COPD
GOLD
stage 3+4
(n=521)
ACO with
GOLD
stage 1+2 and
early asthma onset
(n=780)
ACO with
GOLD
stage 1+2 and
late asthma onset
(n=813)
ACO with
GOLD
stage 3+4 and
early asthma onset
(n=101)
ACO with
GOLD
stage 3+4 and
late asthma onset
(n=207)
General characteristics
Men, %16598/42058 (39)460/1215 (38)235/904 (26)4151/7447 (56)305/521 (59)359/780 (46)351/813 (43)57/101 (56)83/207 (40)
Age, years58 (11)51 (9)61 (10)66 (11)70 (9)58 (11)68 (10)62 (11)69 (9)
Respiratory characteristics
FEV1, litres3.14 (0.81)3.11 (0.79)2.62 (0.74)2.37 (0.72)1.10 (0.31)2.41 (0.73)2.03 (0.67)1.15 (0.34)0.98 (0.28)
FEV1, % of predicted104 (13)95 (13)96 (15)83 (17)41 (7)78 (14)77 (16)39 (9)39 (7)
FEV1/FVC, %79 (5)78 (5)78 (5)64 (6)50 (10)63 (6)62 (6)50 (8)49 (9)
mMRC ≥2, %1881/41844 (4)121/1206 (10)176/899 (20)1152/7393 (16)298/520 (57)136/774 (18)235/810 (29)59/100 (59)147/206 (71)
At least five respiratory infections during preceding 10 years, %270/41529 (1)106/1206 (9)104/902 (12)233/7348 (3)68/506 (13)93/774 (12)100/805 (12)32/101 (32)58/205 (28)
Medication for airway disease, %470/41527 (1)729/1209 (60)672/898 (75)449/7346 (6)194/504 (38)589/772 (76)674/808 (83)89/101 (88)194/207 (94)
Asthma, hay fever or eczema as child, %5081/41906 (12)739/1206 (61)202/894 (23)616/7413 (8)31/517 (6)511/775 (66)130/800 (16)54/100 (54)27/204 (13)
Current allergy11371/41926 (27)1109/1213 (91)660/899 (73)1329/7417 (18)65/516 (13)693/779 (89)486/804 (60)76/101 (75)100/203 (49)
Cardiovascular risk factors
Smoking, %
Never27711/41813 (66)799/1210 (66)584/900 (65)0/7326 (0)0/509 (0)275/748 (37)199/797 (25)27/97 (28)12/201 (6)
Former12358/41813 (30)375/1210 (31)288/900 (32)3915/7326 (53)261/509 (51)333/748 (45)444/797 (56)36/97 (37)105/201 (52)
Current1744/41813 (4)36/1210 (3)28/900 (3)3411/7326 (47)248/509 (49)140/748 (19)154/797 (19)34/97 (35)84/201 (42)
Pack-years, years2 (3)2 (3)2 (3)36 (23)46 (26)13 (18)22 (26)28 (31)36 (23)
Systolic blood pressure, mm Hg137 (21)134 (20)139 (21)142 (21)146 (24)137 (21)144 (21)149 (22)145 (20)
Blood pressure medication, %7485/41706 (18)165/1209 (14)237/896 (26)2166/7385 (29)174/511 (34)139/773 (18)275/809 (34)29/101 (29)72/206 (35)
Diabetes, %1198/41899 (3)30/1207 (2)28/902 (3)412/7416 (6)37/518 (7)30/778 (4)58/808 (7)9/101 (9)18/204 (9)
Body mass index, kg/m226 (4)27 (5)27 (5)26 (4)26 (5)26 (4)26 (4)27 (6)26 (5)
Family history of CVD, %2192/41748 (5)61/1211 (5)53/898 (6)381/7375 (5)20/510 (4)40/773 (5)41/802 (5)6/100 (6)10/204 (5)
Total cholesterol, mmol/l5.6 (1.0)5.6 (1.1)5.9 (1.1)5.6 (1.1)5.6 (1.2)5.6 (1.0)5.8 (1.2)5.6 (1.1)5.7 (1.1)
HDL cholesterol, mmol/l1.68 (0.51)1.60 (0.47)1.72 (0.52)1.61 (0.54)1.68 (0.57)1.66 (0.55)1.77 (0.58)1.66 (0.52)1.83 (0.61)
Physical activity in leisure time, %
Low (sedentary)1816/41819 (4)84/1211 (7)46/894 (5)665/7365 (9)83/516 (16)60/776 (8)57/800 (7)16/96 (17)44/203 (22)
Moderate16914/41819 (40)471/1211 (39)408/894 (463421/7365 (46)292/516 (57)343/776 (44)364/800 (46)58/96 (60)104/203 (51)
High20261/41819 (48)560/1211 (46)389/894 (44)2907/7365 (39)125/516 (24)322/776 (41)331/800 (41)21/96 (22)51/203 (25)
Very high2828/41819 (7)96/1211 (8)51/894 (6)372/7365 (5)16/516 (3)51/776 (7)48/800 (6)1/96 (1)4/203 (2)
Previous admissions CHD or heart failure, %1746/42058 (4)37/1215 (3)75/904 (8)891/7447 (12)103/521 (20)43/780 (6)106/813 (13)18/101 (18)46/207 (22)
  • *Continuous variables are presented as mean (SD).

  • ACO, asthma-COPD overlap; CHD, coronary heart disease; CVD, cardiovascular disease; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in one second; FVC, forced vital capacity; GOLD, Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease ; HDL, high-density lipoprotein; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council Dyspnoea Scale.