Table 2

Asthma characteristics comorbid conditions and inflammatory markers on the basis of severity

Overall
(n=1649)
Intermittent/mild persistent
(n=375)
Moderate persistent
(n=703)
Severe persistent
(n=571)
P value
Country<0.001
 Uganda, n(%)819 (49.7)231 (61.6)411 (58.5)177 (31.0)
 Kenya, n(%)424 (25.7)108 (28.8)159 (22.6)157 (27.5)
 Ethiopia, n(%)406 (24.6)36 (9.6)133 (18.9)237 (41.5)
Adult onset asthma (onset ≥19 years), n (%)1034 (62.7)202 (53.9)433 (61.6)399 (69.9)<0.001
Age in years (median, IQR)
Family history of asthma, n (%)861 (52.2)211 (56.3)366 (52.1)284 (49.7)0.131
Smoking (current/former), n (%)111 (6.7)16 (4.3)37 (5.3)58 (10.2)<0.001
Biomass smoke, n (%)1205 (73.1)271 (72.3)527 (75.0)407 (71.3)0.324
Comorbidities, n (%)
 HIV63 (3.8)13 (3.5)18 (2.6)32 (5.6)0.017
 Hypertension193 (11.7)34 (9.1)80 (11.4)79 (13.8)0.078
 Obesity316 (19.2)70 (18.7)138 (19.6)108 (18.9)0.945
 Tuberculosis19 (1.2)5 (1.3)3 (0.4)11 (1.9)0.032
 GERD288 (17.5)58 (15.5)143 (20.3)87 (15.2)0.030
 Rhinosinusitis370 (22.4)103 (27.5)174 (24.8)93 (16.3)<0.001
SPT, N1649375703571
 At least one positive SPT, %67.369.969.363.10.029
 2–3 positive SPT, %40.745.343.134.70.002
FeNO ppb, N1334307583444
 Median (IQR)25 (12–48)22 (9–40)22 (11–44)32 (16–57)<0.001
 FeNO ≥35 ppb, %37.431.934.545.1<0.001
AEC, N1511356649506
 Median (IQR)270 (140–510)240 (120–415)270 (140–510)305 (160–560)0.001
 AEC>300 cells/μL, %45.138.245.050.00.003
  • AEC, absolute eosinophil count; FENO, fractional exhaled nitric oxide; GERD, gastro-oesophageal disease; SPT, skin prick test.