Table 1

Characteristics of the participants in 2015

All participants (n=12 345)Participants without current asthma in 2015 (n=11 973)Participants with current asthma in 2015 (n=372)P value*
Age, years, mean±SD69.8 (±3.5)69.8 (±3.5)69.8 (±3.5)0.93
Sex, n (%)
 Female3 238 (26)3 116 (26)122 (33)<0.01
Marital status, n (%)
 Living alone2 186 (18)2 114 (18)72 (20)0.42
Education, n (%)
 <High school2 412 (20)2 344 (20)68 (19)0.85
 High school7 156 (59)6 940 (59)216 (60)
 University and other2 564 (21)2 485 (21)79 (22)
Body mass index (BMI), kg/m², mean±SD26.1±3.926.1±3.826.9±4.9<0.01
 Obese (BMI ≥30 kg/m²), N (%)1 702 (14)1 616 (14)86 (23)<0.001
Current tobacco consumption, n (%)
 Non-smoker4 617 (44)4 475 (44)142 (46)0.84
 Current smoker778 (7)755 (7)23 (7)
 Former smoker5 113 (49)4 966 (49)147 (47)
Frailty, n (%)
 Robust7 381 (60)7 198 (60)183 (49)<0.001
 Pre-frail4 258 (34)4 116 (34)142 (38)
 Frail706 (6)659 (6)47 (13)
Asthma, n (%)
 Current asthma in 2015372 (3)
 Current asthma in 20021 456 (18)1 241215
 Constant reports103 (1.6)0103
 At least one1 165 (9)793372
 Confirmed by drug database281 (2.3)0281
 Sensibility154 (1.3)0154
Mood, n (%)
 Depressed, stressed or anxious2 400 (19)2 293 (19)107 (29)<0.001
Other chronic diseases, N (%)
 Heart diseases853 (7)832 (7)21 (6)0.35
 Diabetes1 385 (11)1 329 (11)56 (15)0.02
 Joint pain5 305 (43)5 113 (43)192 (52)<0.001
 Cancer1 530 (13)1 477 (13)53 (15)0.36
  • Sensibility definition: participants who constantly reported current asthma, or only once, in 2015, were considered as having current asthma; otherwise they were considered as not having current asthma.

  • *P value of t-test for continuous variables and χ2 test for categorical variables.