Table 2

Clinical diseases associated with biomarkers measured in this study

Biomarker typeAssociated diseasesReferences
SeleniumNausea, vomiting, ‘garlic breath’, nail loss, hair loss, cardiovascular disease and cardiac arrest, cancer.MacFarquhar et al,44 See et al45 and Rayman.46
ZincNausea, vomiting, epigastric pain, fatigue, hypertension, haemotoxicity, bronchospasms, hepatotoxicity, neurotoxicity and cancer.Fosmire47 and Nriagu.48
MetallothioneinCancer, cardiomyopathy, oxidative stress and heavy metal toxicity.Eckschlager et al,49 Zhou et al,50 Ruttkay-Nedecky 201325 and Klaassen.51
Potential harm
8-OHdGCancer, cardiovascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases.Kroese,52 Valavanidis 200926 and Kim et al.53
8-IsoprostaneCoronary artery disease, atherosclerosis, interstitial lung disease, non-small cell lung cancer and breast cancer.Vassalle et al,54 Morrow,55 Montuschi et al,56 Stathopoulos57 and Rossner Jr et al.58