Table 2

Contribution of phases in the life cycle, from ‘cradle to grave’, of Foster 100/6 µg MDI 120 doses and Foster NEXThaler DPI 100/6 µg 120 doses, to their individual carbon footprint for single actuation (gCO2e/actuation) and their relative contribute (%)

Product name (INN)Foster 100/6 µg MDI
120 doses
Foster NEXThaler 100/6 µg DPI
120 doses
Life cycle stageAbsolute
contribute gCO2e/actuation
contribute gCO2e/actuation
UpstreamRaw materials—active pharmaceutical ingredients and excipients*1.291.360.020.24
Raw materials—device components0.810.851.6021.02
Raw materials—packaging components0.120.130.334.37
Supplementary materials—device packaging0.961.022.4632.20
Total3.18 gCO2e/actuation3.37%4.41 gCO2e/actuation57.83%
CORERaw materials transportation0.
Energy and water consumption2.002.121.9625.72
Manufacturing waste0.
HFA leaks and air emissions1.431.510.000.00
Total3.60 gCO2e/actuation3.82%2.18 gCO2e/actuation28.54%
DownstreamDistribution and transportation0.330.350.334.29
User phase66.2770.190.000.00
End of life21.0422.280.719.34
Total87.64 gCO2e/actuation92.82 %1.04 gCO2e/actuation13.63 %
Total CF gCO2e/actuation94.427.63
  • Data calculated using the CF-SA method.

  • *Excipients including propellant gas HFA134a in case of Foster 100/6 MDI.

  • CF, carbon footprint; CF-SA, systematic approach for CF calculation; DPI, Dry Powder Inhaler; HFA, hydrofluoroalkane; INN, International Nonproprietary Names ; MDI, metered-dose inhaler.