Table 2

Comparison of demographics of patients who met the primary endpoint of death up to and including 12 May 2020

Patients currently alive (admitted or discharged)Patients discharged and alivePatients still admitted/receiving inpatient care and alivePatients who diedP value comparing all alive patients and patients who died
n1448137276769
Age, IQR and range68 (52–80)68 (52–80)66 (54–76)80 (71–887)<0.001
Sex, n (%) (female)637 (44.0)616 (44.9)21 (27.6)290 (37.7)0.004
Self-reported ethnicity, n (%)<0.001
 White958 (66.2)906 (66.0)52 (68.4)582 (75.7)
 Mixed/multiple10 (0.7)10 (0.7)0 (0.0)8 (1.0)
 South Asian/South Asian British290 (20.0)275 (20.0)15 (19.7)120 (15.6)
 Black/African/Caribbean/black British94 (6.5)92 (6.7)2 (2.6)40 (5.2)
 Other ethnic group60 (4.1)53 (3.9)7 (9.2)7 (0.9)
 Preferred not to say16 (1.1)16 (1.2)0 (0.0)6 (0.8)
 Unknown20 (1.4)20 (1.5)0 (0.0)6 (0.8)
Comorbidity count, n (%)<0.0001
 None377 (26.0)362 (26.4)15 (19.7)62 (8.1)
 1 or 2593 (41.0)555 (40.5)38 (50.0)295 (38.4)
 3 or more478 (33.0)455 (33.2)23 (30.3)412 (53.6)*
Morbidities
 Hypertension490 (33.8)457 (33.3)33 (43.4)374 (48.6)<0.001
 Cerebrovascular disease128 (8.8)125 (9.1)3 (3.9)140 (18.2)<0.001
 Atrial fibrillation236 (16.3)228 (16.6)8 (10.5)228 (29.6)<0.001
 Ischaemic heart disease, angina, myocardial infarct286 (19.8)276 (20.1)10 (13.2)260 (33.8)<0.001
 Diabetes (type 1 and 2)459 (31.7)431 (31.4)28 (36.8)293 (38.1)0.002
 Asthma296 (20.4)280 (20.4)16 (21.1)143 (18.6)0.299
 COPD202 (14.0)194 (14.1)8 (10.5)174 (22.6)<0.001
 Interstitial lung disease24 (1.7)23 (1.7)1 (1.3)25 (3.3)0.015
 Chronic kidney disease267 (18.4)253 (18.4)14 (18.4)244 (31.7)<0.001
 Any active malignancy87 (6.0)84 (6.1)3 (3.9)65 (8.5)0.030
 Dementia (all types)131 (9.0)129 (9.4)2 (2.6)195 (25.4)<0.001
 Obesity176 (12.2)163 (11.9)13 (17.1)91 (11.8)0.825
English Indices of Deprivation, n (%)0.848
 1667 (46.1)633 (46.1)34 (44.7)336 (43.7)
 2271 (18.7)253 (18.4)18 (23.7)145 (18.9)
 3200 (13.8)191 (13.9)9 (11.8)111 (14.4)
 4150 (10.4)146 (10.6)4 (5.3)80 (10.4)
 5139 (9.6)128 (9.3)11 (14.5)86 (11.2)
 Missing21 (1.5)21 (1.5)0 (0.0)11 (1.4)
Duration of symptoms prior to admission (in days), n where data were available (%)245 (16.9)223 (16.3)22 (28.9)110 (14.3)
Median (IQR)9 (2–16)9 (3–16)7 (5–12)7 (3–15)
Severity of COVID-19 on admission, n (%)n=489n=453n=36n=247<0.001
 Mild348 (71.2)338 (74.6)10 (27.8)101 (40.8)
 Moderate91 (18.6)81 (17.8)10 (27.8)94 (38.1)
 Severe50 (10.2)34 (7.5)16 44.4)52 (21.1)†
  • Data are number (percentage) unless otherwise stated.

  • Medical conditions were self-reported and checked against admission and linked primary care notes.

  • Groups are compared using χ2 analysis, except for pregnancy where Fisher’s exact test was used, and age distribution where Kruskal-Wallis was used.

  • Of note, p values compared all patients currently alive (in patients or discharged) versus those who had died.

  • For English Indices of Deprivation, the quintiles were as follows: quintile 1=33.5–78.1; quintile 2=21.7–33.2; quintile 3=14.4–21.5; quintile 4=8.8–14.1; quintile 5=1.4–8.6.

  • *Increased deaths with 3 or more (p<0.0001) comorbidities on post-hoc analysis.

  • †Increased deaths in moderate and severe cases versus mild cases on post-hoc analysis (p<0.0001) for comparisons with patients discharged alive and currently alive.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.