Table 2

Multivariable analysis of independent associations between underlying contributing conditions and breathlessness

FactormMRC ≥1 versus 0
Adjusted OR (95% CI)*
Chronic airflow limitation (FEV1 <LLN)1.6 (0.8 to 3.1)
Chronic bronchitis2.4 (1.2 to 4.8)
Angina pectoris7.5 (3.9 to 14.7)
Anxiety1.3 (0.7 to 2.3)
Depression2.1 (1.2 to 3.9)
Obesity3.7 (2.2 to 6.1)
  • OR and 95% CIs.

  • *Adjusted for age, sex, socioeconomic status, smoking status, aerobic fitness and all other factors in table. Obesity=body mass index (BMI) >30; BMI <30 is the reference value.

  • FEV1, forced expiratory volume for 1 s; LLN, lower limit of normal; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council.