Table 1

Baseline sociodemographic and clinical characteristics

Characteristic*Tai chi (N=61)Education (N=31)
Age (mean, SD)68.6 (9.2)68.1 (6.7)
Male sex43 (71)18 (58)
Race
 White48 (79)26 (84)
 Black7 (12)4 (13)
 Other6 (10)1 (3)
Annual income <US$35K37 (61)15 (48)
Married/living with partner20 (33)14 (45)
Unemployed/retired/disabled56 (92)27 (87)
FEV1 % predicted NHANES (mean±SD)57.8 (14.3)56.4 (13.0)
 Charlson Comorbidity Index (mean±SD)6.8 (2.5)6.4 (2.4)
 GOLD stage (mean, SD)2.3 (0.6)2.4 (0.6)
 Stage I–II45 (74)21 (68)
 Stage III–IV16 (26)10 (32)
BODE index (mean, SD)2.8 (1.8)2.4 (1.1)
 0–227 (44)20 (65)
 3–423 (38)11 (36)
 5 or greater11 (18.0)0 (0)
Regular, daily oxygen use11 (18)4 (13)
Smoking pack-years (mean, SD)57.6 (38.2)50.4 (30.0)
Completed pulmonary rehabilitation12 (20)11 (36)
Comorbidities
 CVD (CAD, angina, angioplasty, MI)23 (38)7 (23)
 Heart failure7 (12)2 (7)
 Cancer14 (23)5 (16)
 Hypertension42 (69)18 (58)
 Limitation of limb14 (23)5 (16)
 OA, sciatica, chronic back pain31 (51)16 (52)
 Peripheral vascular disease4 (7)0 (0)
 Stroke or cerebrovascular disease7 (12)2 (7)
 Connective tissue disease9 (15)3 (10)
 Obstructive sleep apnea14 (23)6 (20)
CES-D (mean±SD)14.9 (11.7)8.7 (7.8)
  • *N (%) unless otherwise noted.

  • BODE, Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea and Exercise; CAD, coronary artery disease; CES-D, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression; CVD, cardiovascular disease; FEV, forced expiratory volume; GOLD, Global Obstructive Lung Disease; MI, myocardial infarction; NHANES, National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey; OA, osteoarthritis.;