Table 4

Within-group and between-group changes in quality of life, cognitive-emotional measures and functional status

Baseline to 12 weeksBaseline to 24 weeks
Outcome measureTai chi
(N=52)
Mean change (SD)
Education
(N=29)
Mean change (SD)
Between-group effect size (95% CI)Adjusted between- group Mean difference (95% CI)*Tai chi
(N=49)
Mean change (SD)
Education
(N=29)
Mean change (SD)
Between- group
effect size
(95% CI)
Adjusted between- group mean difference
(95% CI)*
Health-related quality of life and symptoms
CRQ dyspnoea*0.29
(1.31)
0
(0.83)
0.26
(−0.20 to 0.71)
0.29
(−0.16 to 0.75)
0.23
(1.31)
−0.25
(1.05)
0.41
(−0.06 to 0.87)
0.46
(−0.05 to 0.97)
CRQ emotion*0.25
(0.75)
−0.18
(0.84)
0.54
(0.08 to 1.00)
0.49
(0.13 to 0.85)
0.09
(1)
0.16
(0.79)
−0.08
(−0.54 to 0.38)
−0.01
(−0.4 to 0.38)
CRQ fatigue*0.2
(1.23)
0.15
(0.74)
0.05
(−0.40 to 0.51)
0.08
(−0.34 to 0.50)
−0.06
(1.04)
0.03
(0.9)
−0.09
(−0.55 to 0.37)
−0.05
(−0.47 to 0.38)
CRQ mastery*0.27
(0.94)
0.02
(0.97)
0.27
(−0.19 to 0.72)
0.26
(−0.16 to 0.69)
0.41
(0.89)
0.25
(0.91)
0.18
(−0.28 to 0.64)
0.15
(−0.25 to 0.55)
CRQ total*0.25
(0.74)
−0.03
(0.47)
0.46
(0 to 0.92)
0.31
(0.05 to 0.57)
0.16
(0.77)
0.05
(0.57)
0.16
(−0.30 to 0.62)
0.13
(−0.17 to 0.42)
UCSD shortness of breath−1.7
(11.73)
0.85
(7.23)
−0.26
(−0.72 to 0.19)
−2.58
(−6.63 to 1.47)
−0.09
(14.81)
3.06
(9.95)
−0.25
(−0.71 to 0.21)
−3.28
(−8.66 to 2.11)
PROMIS fatigue*−0.13
(0.4)
0.02
(0.5)
−0.34
(−0.80 to 0.12)
−0.17
(−0.38 to 0.03)
−0.04
(0.67)
−0.01
(0.51)
−0.05
(−0.51 to 0.41)
−0.05
(−0.30 to 0.21)
Cognitive-emotional measures
COPD self-efficacy0.13
(0.58)
0.15
(0.43)
−0.04
(−0.49 to 0.41)
0
(−0.22 to 0.22)
0.16
(0.62)
0.13 (0.53)0.06
(−0.40 to 0.52)
0.07
(−0.19 to 0.33)
CES-D score*−2.57
(7.73)
−0.07
(5.78)
−0.37
(−0.82 to 0.09)
−2.39
(−5.28 to 0.49)
−1.41
(9.44)
0.21
(8.17)
−0.18
(−0.64 to 0.28)
−1.42
(−5.28 to 2.43)
MSPSS*0.14
(1)
−0.03
(0.63)
0.20
(−0.26 to 0.65)
0.13
(−0.21 to 0.48)
0.27
(1.28)
−0.04
(0.61)
0.30
(−0.16 to 0.76)
0.26
(−0.15 to 0.66)
Functional status
6 min walk test35.3
(118.6)
30.5
(121.6)
0.04
(−0.41 to 0.49)
1.4
(−52.9 to 55.7)
12.8
(138.3)
−12.3
(158.1)
0.17
(−0.30 to 0.64)
27.7
(−40.7 to 96.0)
Chair stand0.63
(1.74)
1.07
(2.31)
−0.21
(−0.67 to 0.24)
−0.43
(−1.39 to 0.53)
0.57
(2.25)
0.9
(1.99)
−0.16
(−0.62 to 0.31)
−0.30
(−1.25 to 0.66)
Chair sit and reach0.28
(3.18)
−0.43
(2.91)
0.23
(−0.22 to 0.69)
0.67
(−0.68 to 2.03)
0.36
(3.08)
−0.29
(2.62)
0.23
(−0.24 to 0.69)
0.67
(−0.61 to 1.96)
Calories-Mod Intensity Exercise†−216
(2311)
−177
(1765)
−0.02
(−0.47 to 0.44)
−36
(−905 to 834)
−356
(1976)
591
(2798)
−0.39
(−0.86 to 0.07)
−874
(−2003 to 254)
Freq-Mod Intensity Exercise−1.26
(6.52)
−0.38
(5.92)
−0.14
(−0.59 to 0.31)
−0.92
(−3.56 to 1.72)
1.93
(18.89)
−0.74
(7.24)
0.19
(−0.27 to 0.64)
2.81
(−2.85 to 8.47)
  • *Adjusted for 12 weeks values, and baseline CESD, BODE (Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exercise) and Charlson Comorbidity Score.

  • †Kcal/week.

  • CES-D, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRQ, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire; MSPSS, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; UCSD, University of California San Diego.