Table 5

Within-group and between-group changes in quality of life, cognitive-emotional measures and functional status in the tai chi subgroup from 12 to 24 weeks

Outcome measurePhase 2 maintenance (12–24 weeks)
Weekly
tai chi class
(n=23)
Mean change (SD)
No additional tai chi class
(n=25)
Mean change (SD)
Between-group effect size (95% CI)Adjusted between-group difference at week 24 (95% CI)*
Health-related quality of life and symptoms
*CRQ dyspnoea−0.05
(1.28)
−0.24
(1.33)
0.15
(−0.42 to 0.71)
0.28
(−0.48 to 1.05)
*CRQ emotion−0.13
(0.85)
−0.17
(1.03)
0.04
(−0.52 to 0.61)
0.05
(−0.49 to 0.58)
*CRQ fatigue−0.12
(1.48)
−0.4
(1.17)
0.21
(−0.36 to 0.78)
0.22
(−0.56 to 0.99)
*CRQ mastery0.02
(0.49)
0.16
(0.9)
−0.19
(−0.76 to 0.38)
−0.13
(−0.55 to 0.30)
*CRQ total−0.08
(0.74)
−0.17
(0.94)
0.11
(−0.46 to 0.67)
0.11
(−0.39 to 0.60)
UCSD shortness of breath0.74
(9.61)
2.72
(11.94)
−0.19
(−0.76 to 0.38)
−2.18
(−8.61 to 4.25)
*PROMIS fatigue−0.06
(0.75)
0.24
(0.71)
−0.41
(−0.98 to 0.16)
−0.28
(−0.71 to 0.16)
Cognitive-emotional measures
*COPD self-efficacy−0.13
(0.48)
0.27
(0.68)
−0.69
(−1.28 to to 0.11)
−0.40
(−0.75 to to 0.06)
*CES-D score1.91
(7.38)
0.47
(9.69)
0.17
(−0.40 to 0.73)
1.22
(−3.64 to 6.08)
*MSPSS−0.19
(1.24)
0.37
(0.86)
−0.52
(−1.10 to 0.05)
−0.51
(−1.15 to 0.12)
Functional status
6 min walk test0.3
(104.2)
−50.6
(77.5)
0.56
(−0.05 to 1.16)
49.3
(−9.9 to 108.5)
Chair stand0.18
(1.26)
−0.52
(1.97)
0.42
(−0.17 to 1.02)
0.56
(−0.48 to 1.60)
Chair sit and reach−0.32
(3.14)
0.57
(2.71)
−0.30
(−0.89 to 0.29)
−0.92
(−2.79 to 0.96)
Calories-mod intensity exercise†−105
(2102)
−39
(2309)
−0.03
(−0.60 to 0.54)
−202
(−1509 to 1106)
Freq-mod intensity exercise−0.63
(4.74)
7.34
(27.99)
−0.38
(−0.95 to 0.20)
−8.62
(−19.72 to 2.48)
  • *Adjusted for 12 weeks values, and baseline CESD, BODE (Body Mass Index, Obstruction, Dyspnoea, Exercise) and Charlson Comorbidity Score.

  • †Kcal/week.

  • CES-D, Centre for Epidemiologic Studies Depression; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CRQ, Chronic Respiratory Questionnaire; MSPSS, Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support; PROMIS, Patient-Reported Outcomes Measurement Information System; UCSD, University of California San Diego.