Table 1

Baseline characteristics

Singing for lung health
(SLH) (n=9)
Usual care (n=9)P value
Age72.1 (9.65)69.89 (9.36)0.63
Female3 (33%)6 (66%)0.18
BMI23.30 (7.20)25.52 (6.41)0.50
FEV1 % predicted56.39 (35.57)35.01 (17.84)0.13
Oxygen therapy1 (11%)2 (22%)0.60
Pack years smoked36.23 (19.95)41.89 (31.26)0.66
Falls in last year1 (11%)1 (11%)1.00
Baseline 6MWD418 (136.23)366 (82.30)0.34
SPPB total9.56 (2.19)9.11 (2.32)0.68
Prestudy expectation of SLH health impact
(0 ‘no impact’ to 10 ‘large impact’)
4.56 (1.33)4.56 (2.24)1.00
SF-36 Physical Component Score39.11 (8.39)34.91 (8.26)0.30
SF-36 Mental Component Score45.76 (4.60)41.52 (35.16)0.20
SF-36 Physical function43.89 (26.43)36.67 (27.95)0.58
SF-36 Role limitation, physical50.00 (41.46)25.00 (39.53)0.21
SF-36 Role limitation, emotional85.19 (24.22)62.97 (35.14)0.14
SF-36 energy40.56 (17.40)42.23 (18.05)0.84
SF-36 emotional well being74.67 (11.66)66.23 (14.44)0.19
SF-36 social functioning79.17 (20.73)61.11 (34.60)0.20
SF-36 pain65.56 (21.71)61.39 (29.77)0.74
SF36 general health32.22 (13.94)31.11 (14.95)0.87
SF-36 health change47.22 (19.54)52.78 (23.20)0.59
Depression (PHQ-9)5.00 median (IQR 3.00–8.00)6.00 median (IQR 5.00–14.00)0.28 (WRS)
Anxiety (GAD-7)2.00 median (IQR 1.00–2.00)5.00 median (IQR 0.00–11.00)0.23 (WRS)
ABC scale score78.75 median (IQR 50.63–90.63)76.25 median (IQR 64.38–91.25)0.72 (WRS)
Dyspnoea 1211.00 median (IQR 7.00–15.00)13.00 median (IQR 8.00–20.00)0.27 (WRS)
MRC dyspnoea score2.89 (0.93)3.00 (1.32)0.84
CAT score18.11 (7.10)21.00 (7.57)0.42
PROactive difficulty*68.56 (13.28)63.11 (14.60)0.42
PROactive amount†53.67 (14.14)46.67 (18.21)0.38
PROactive total‡61.11 (12.06)54.89 (13.86)0.32
Daily step count2717 median (IQR 1870–4871)2566 median (IQR 1213–3119)0.40 (WRS)
  • Data shown are mean (SD), or if appropriate, median (IQR)/number (%) as indicated. P values are for ttests for between groups differences, or Wilcoxon rank-sum (WRS) as marked, if appropriate.

  • *Scale of 0 (high level difficulty) to 100 (low level of difficulty).

  • †Scale of 0 (low amount) to 100 high amount.

  • ‡Total score calculated as mean of PROactive difficulty and PROactive amount (0–100).

  • ABC, Activity specific Balance Confidence; BMI, body mass index; CAT, COPD Assessment Test; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; GAD-7, Generalised Anxiety Disorder-7; MRC, Medical Research Council; 6MWD, 6 min walk distance; PHQ-9, Patient Health Questionnaire-9; PROactive, Patient Reported Outcome measure forphysical activity in COPD; SF-36, Short Form 36 Health Survey; SPPB, short physical performance battery; WRS, Wilcoxon rank-sum.