Table 2

Considerations for online versus face-to-face delivery of singing for lung health (SLH) based on participant and facilitator experience

Face to faceOnline
Access: PhysicalMore challenging
Geographically local SLH sessions
Transport requirement
Financial and time costs
Availability and accessibility in context of lung condition and symptoms.
Private physical space still required for participant.
Access: OnlineLimited or no requirement
Can be used for session organisation.
Computer/device and internet access required.
Overcomes multiple face-to-face physical barriers.
Digital literacyNot requiredRequired
With support can be minimal
Could help build skills/confidence facilitating access to other online services.
Infection/health risksPotential risk of cross infection from participants or infection during transport to/from session.Not supervised in person
Contact details of next-of-kin advisable for potential issues.
Social experienceVery effective and important to participants.Good (perhaps less than face to face)
Building rapport more challenging, especially if have never met in person (new groups/individuals)
Specific content to address advised.
Personal experiencePresence of peers can be both supportive and slightly intimidating depending on individual and group dynamic.The required technological skills can induce mild anxiety if participant not confident/experienced.
Physical engagementImportant aspect of session
Journey to/from session also valuable physical activity for some.
More challenging than face to face
Requires specific consideration and promotion.
Facilitator experienceEasier to gauge participant emotions and group dynamic.More challenging to assess if appropriate techniques are being used by participants.