Table 2

Baseline demographics and clinical characteristics with comparison by outcome at 30 days

MissingAllDeath by 30 days
AliveDeadP value
n830530300
Characteristics at presentation
 Age (years)1 (0.1)70 (58–80)65 (55–76)76 (67–85)<0.001
 Sex (male)0 (0.0)509 (61.3)309 (58.3)200 (66.7)0.02
 CFS score81 (9.8)4 (2–6)3 (2–5)5 (3–6)<0.001
 Temperature (°C)3 (0.4)37.5 (36.8–38.2)37.4 (36.8–38.1)37.6 (36.8–38.4)0.15
 Respiratory rate (breaths/min)2 (0.2)24 (20–28)22 (20–26)24 (21–30)<0.001
 Heart rate (beats/min)1 (0.1)94 (82,108)95 (82–108)91 (80–110)0.28
 Systolic BP (mm Hg)2 (0.2)130 (115–145)130 (117–145)131 (113–145)0.78
 Diastolic BP (mm Hg)2 (0.2)75.0 (65.0–84.0)76.0 (67.0–85.0)72 (63–81)<0.001
 SpO21 (0.1)94 (90–96)94 (91–96)93 (89–96)0.002
 Supplemental oxygen (%)2 (0.2)340 (41.0)183 (34.5)157 (52.3)<0.001
 SpO2:FiO2 ratio2 (0.2)414 (283 to 448)429 (339 to 452)354 (189 to 443)<0.001
 Confusion0 (0.0)183 (22.0)90 (17.0)93 (31.0)<0.001
Investigations
 Urea (mmol/L)8 (1.0)7.2 (4.9–11.1)6.3 (4.6–9.2)9.8 (7.0–15.1)<0.001
 Consolidation4 (0.5)684 (82.8)425 (80.5)259 (86.9)0.02
 CRP (mg/L)10 (1.2)104.0 (47.8–173.1)92.0 (42.5–158.0)117.0 (59.0–195.0)<0.001
 WCC (109/L)4 (0.5)7.4 (5.6–10.1)7.3 (5.5–9.8)7.6 (5.7–10.6)0.20
 Neutrophils (109/L)7 (0.8)5.8 (3.9–8.55)5.6 (3.8–7.9)5.9 (4.0–9.1)0.26
 Lymphocytes (109/L)9 (1.1)0.8 (0.6–1.1)0.9 (0.6–1.2)0.7 (0.5–1.0)<0.001
 NLR9 (1.1)154.0 (91.0–201.0)155.0 (95.5–201.0)152.5 (85.3–201.0)0.62
  • P values are calculated using Fisher’s exact test for categorical variables, Mann-Whitney test for continuous variables since none of the continuous variables follow the assumption of normality (Shapiro normality test p value of ≤0.001 for all of them)

  • Data are presented as n (%) or median (IQR).

  • BP, blood pressure; CFS, Clinical Frailty Scale; CRP, C reactive protein; FiO2, fraction of inspired oxygen; NLR, neutrophil:lymphocyte ratio; SpO2, oxygen saturation by pulse oximetry; WCC, white cell count.