Table 3

Risk of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) in relation to long-acting bronchodilator exposure status in 30 days before index date

Exposure statusCases (No (%))Controls (No (%))Matched unadjusted OR (95% CI)Matched adjusted OR* (95% CI)Unmatched adjusted OR† (95% CI)
LAMA and LABA dual therapy641 (11.9)4592 (8.9)1.25 (1.11 to 1.41)1.28 (1.13 to 1.44)1.25 (1.11 to 1.41)
LAMA therapy678 (12.6)6044 (11.7)
LABA therapy2017 (37.4)18 590 (36.1)0.97 (0.89 to 1.07)1.00 (0.91 to 1.10)1.01 (0.92 to 1.11)
Unexposed‡2063 (38.2)22 337 (43.3)0.83 (0.75 to 0.91)0.84 (0.76 to 0.92)0.85 (0.77 to 0.93)
  • *Adjusted for ethnicity; NZDep06; Charlson comorbidity score; hospital discharge diagnosis before cohort entry of asthma, ACS; hospital discharge diagnosis before cohort entry and (separately) between cohort entry and index date of any ischaemic heart disease, raised blood pressure, dyslipidaemia, heart failure, life-threatening arrhythmia, ischaemic stroke, transient ischaemic attack, diabetes, benign prostatic hypertrophy/bladder outflow obstruction; hospital discharge diagnosis at any time before index date of hyperthyroidism, closed-angle glaucoma, osteoporotic fracture; use in 6 months before cohort entry and (separately) in 6 months before the index date of statin, antiplatelet, blood pressure lowering, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory,and theophylline therapy.

  • †Adjusted for the above variables and the matching factors (date of birth, sex, date of cohort entry, and COPD severity).

  • ‡No long-acting bronchodilator use in 30 days before index date.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LABA, long-acting beta2 agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist.