Table 5

Agreement between the two observers on classification of crackles

Kappa95% CI
Among all participants in the second round of classification (n=588)
 Basal inspiratory crackles either lung0.650.59 to 70.9
Among 263 participants classified by both observers to have unilateral/bilateral basal inspiratory crackles
 Fine or coarse crackles either lung0.240.13 to 0.36
 Early* or late crackles either lung0.400.30 to 0.51
  • *'Early crackles’ and ‘both early and late crackles’ are included in the category ‘early’.