Table 2

HR based on multivariable adjusted Cox regression analysis of the association of hyperlipidaemia and other covariates with all-cause mortality in unmatched and propensity score matched patients with pneumonia

CovariatesUnmatched cohort, n=8553Propensity score matched cohort, n=1879
HR (95% CI)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Long-term mortality, median follow-up 3.9 years
Age1.04 (1.03 to 1.04)<0.00011.04 (1.04 to 1.05)<0.0001
Male vs female1.14 (1.07 to 1.20)<0.00011.12 (1.02 to 1.22)0.0135
White vs non-white0.90 (0.83 to 0.98)0.01760.90 (0.76 to 1.06)0.1970
Length of stay1.02 (1.01 to 1.02)<0.00011.03 (1.03 to 1.04)<0.0001
Cancer vs no cancer1.98 (1.86 to 2.01)<0.00011.80 (1.64 to 1.98)<0.0001
CKD vs no CKD1.26 (1.16 to 1.37)<0.00011.36 (1.22 to 1.53)<0.0001
COPD vs no COPD1.23 (1.16 to 1.30)<0.00011.20 (1.10 to 1.32)<0.0001
DM vs no DM1.10 (1.03 to 1.18)0.00401.16 (1.05 to 1.27)0.0022
HLP vs no HLP0.75 (0.70 to 0.80)<0.00010.88 (0.81 to 0.96)0.0030
HF vs no HF1.30 (1.21 to 1.40)<0.00011.29 (1.16 to 1.43)<0.0001
CAD1.02 (0.95 to 1.09)0.55721.06 (0.97 to 1.17)0.1991
HTN0.97 (0.91 to 1.02)0.33050.99 (0.90 to 1.09)0.8598
Stroke vs no stroke1.25 (1.04 to 1.52)0.01931.35 (1.06 to 1.72)0.0135
28-day mortality from date of hospitalisation
Age1.03 (1.03 to 1.04)<0.00011.03 (1.02 to 1.04)<0.0001
Male vs female1.18 (0.99 to 1.40)0.05170.92 (0.70 to 1.22)0.5776
White vs non-white0.53 (0.44 to 0.66)<0.00010.49 (0.32 to 0.74)0.0008
Length of stay1.03 (1.02 to 1.03)<0.00011.05 (1.03 to 1.07)<0.0001
Cancer vs no cancer2.35 (1.98 to 2.79)<0.00012.29 (1.73 to 3.03)<0.0001
CKD vs no CKD0.92 (0.70 to 1.20)0.53551.06 (0.74 to 1.52)0.7387
COPD vs no COPD0.88 (0.73 to 1.06)0.18710.89 (0.66 to 1.21)0.4574
DM vs no DM0.92 (0.74 to 1.14)0.46020.78 (0.57 to 1.08)0.1336
HLP vs no HLP0.52 (0.41 to 0.66)<0.00010.65 (0.49 to 0.86)0.0025
HF vs no HF1.72 (1.41 to 2.08)<0.00011.65 (1.22 to 2.23)0.0013
CAD0.91 (0.73 to 1.13)0.39261.05 (0.78 to 1.42)0.7438
HTN0.74 (0.62 to 0.88)0.00090.73 (0.55 to 0.97)0.0289
Stroke vs no stroke1.96 (1.23 to 3.11)0.00431.10 (0.51 to 2.34)0.8086
  • Cox regression model was adjusted for age, sex, race, length of hospital stay and key comorbid conditions including cancer, CKD, CAD, COPD, DM, HF, HTN, stroke and HLP.

  • A robust variance estimator to account for matching was used to estimate HR in matched cohort.

  • CAD, coronary artery disease; CKD, chronic kidney disease; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DM, diabetes mellitus; HF, heart failure; HLP, hyperlipidaemia; HTN, hypertension.