Table 1

Clinical characteristics and adjuvant therapies according to corticosteroids administration in patients with COVID-19

CharacteristicsOverall
(N=4313)
Corticosteroids
(n=574)
No corticosteroids
(n=3739)
P value
Age—years65.1±16.864.5±16.165.2±16.90.32
Female sex—n (%)1872 (43.4)248 (43.0)1624 (43.0)0.93
Obesity363 (8.4)36 (6.3)327 (8.8)0.05
Race or ethnic group—n (%)*
 White930 (24.7)121 (24.0)809 (25.0)0.19
 Black921 (24.5)136 (27.0)785 (24.0)0.28
 Hispanic1705 (45.3)218 (43.0)1487 (46.0)0.49
 Asian209 (5.6)33 (6.5)176 (5.4)0.29
 Other548 (12.7)66 (11.5)482 (12.9)0.45
Coexisting conditions—n (%)
 Hypertension1525 (35.4)183 (32.0)1342 (36.0)0.07
 Diabetes1010 (23.4)119 (21.0)891 (24.0)0.11
 Chronic kidney disease557 (13)61 (11.0)496 (13.0)0.08
 Asthma207 (4.8)34 (5.9)173 (4.6)0.17
 COPD175 (4.1)16 (2.8)159 (4.3)0.11
 OSA97 (2.3)9 (1.6)88 (2.4)0.29
 Smokers1091 (25.3)133 (23)958 (26.0)0.22
 Any comorbidity2364 (54.8)297 (51.7)2067 (55.3)0.12
 No comorbidity1949 (45.2)277 (48.3)1672 (44.7)0.12
COVID-19 disease severity†
 Mild638 (14.8)103 (18)535 (14)0.02
 Moderate3105 (71.9)387 (67)2718 (73)0.01
 Severe (intubated)570 (13.2)84 (15)486 (13)0.28
Charlson Comorbidity Index (CCI)
 0609 (14.1)85 (15)524 (14)0.61
 1488 (11.3)69 (12)419 (11)0.57
 2780 (18.1)111 (19)669 (18)0.41
 ≥32436 (56.5)309 (54)2127 (57)0.16
Length of hospital stay (days)
 Mean9.1±23.48.09±6.89.2±24.90.02
 Median6 (3–12)6 (3–12)6 (3–11)
Admission laboratory values
 C reactive protein (mg/L)133.1±22.282±44142±240.33
 D-dimer (μg/L)1.21±0.181.23±0.351.21±0.220.63
 Ferritin (ng/L)613.3±124404.2±225669±1450.61
 Interleukin-6 (pg/mL)269±20316±16205±420.02
 Procalcitonin (ng/L)1.24±0.720.23±0.061.37±0.810.47
 Lymphocyte count (×109/L)1.42±0.221.08±0.291.47±0.260.92
Clinical outcomes
 Death1270 (29.5)153 (26.7)1117 (29.9)0.13
 ICU admission324 (7.5)39 (6.8)285 (7.6)0.47
 Mechanical ventilation581 (13.5)86 (15.0)495 (13.2)0.27
  • *Patient-reported variables. COPD = Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. OSA = Obstructive sleep apnea.

  • †Mild—oxygen saturation >93%; moderate—oxygen saturation <93%; severe—respiratory failure with oxygen saturation <93% and requiring invasive mechanical ventilation (Mount Sinai Health System Treatment Guidelines).

  • ICU, intensive care unit.