Table 2

Comparison of singing with rest and walking at three different speeds

Cardiorespiratory parameterSinging repertoire (component 6) median (IQR)Baseline rest period 1Difference from singing repertoire (p value*)Walking at 2 km/hour median (IQR)Difference from singing repertoire (p value*)Walking at 4 km/hour median (IQR)Difference from singing repertoire (p value*)Walking at 6 km/hour median (IQR)Difference from singing repertoire (p value*)
Median (IQR)
VO2 mL/kg/min16.27 (10.74–18.86)3.95 (3.69–4.35)−12.32 (0.012)8.19 (7.26–9.01)−8.08 (0.012)10.42 (9.68–11.33)−5.85 (0.036)15.39 (14.68–16.64)−0.88 (1.00)
METs4.12 (2.72–4.78)1.00 (0.93–1.10)−3.12 (0.012)2.07 (1.84–2.28)−2.05 (0.012)2.64 (2.45–2.87)−1.48 (0.036)3.90 (3.72–4.21)−0.22 (1.00)
End tidal CO2 kPa5.16 (4.91–5.51)4.24 (3.80–4.52)−0.92 (<0.05)4.43 (3.88–4.45)−0.73 (<0.05)4.62 (4.08–4.91)−0.54 (0.069)4.91 (4.40–5.14)−0.25 (0.12)
Heart rate (bpm)108 (97–114)76 (63–82)−31 (0.012)86 (81–91)−22 (0.012)99 (88–107)−9 (0.042)108 (101–119)0 (0.62)
Minute ventilation (L/min)22.42 (16.83–30.54)11 (9–13)−10.9 (0.012)18.77 (16.89–21.35)−3.72 (0.069)23.27 (20.09–26.37)+0.85 (0.89)30.35 (26.94–41.11)+7.93 (0.017)
Respiratory rate (breaths/min)10 (7–13)15 (14–17)+5.35 (0.017)23 (21–29)+12.75 (0.012)23 (20–31)+12.49 (0.012)24 (20–35)+13.32 (0.012)
Volume per breath (L/breath)2.11 (1.92–2.70)0.69 (0.63–0.77)−1.42 (0.0117)0.80 (0.68–0.98)−1.31 (0.012)0.93 (0.86–1.05)−1.18 (0.012)1.21 (1.09–1.43)−0.90 (0.012)
Borg Dyspnoea Scale1.0 (1.0–2.5)0 (0–0)−1 (0.013)0.00 (0.00–0.50)−1 (0.019)0.75 (0.50–1.00)−0.25 (0.049)1.00 (0.75–1.00)0 (0.049)
Borg Rating of Perceived Exertion Scale8.5 (8.0–9.0)6 (6–6)−2.5 (0.019)6.00 (6.00–7.00)−2.5 (0.035)7.50 (7.00–8.00)−1 (0.052)9.00 (8.00–9.00)+0.5 (0.8788)
  • *Wilcoxon signed-rank test. Data are provided to two decimal places, or less, when appropriate for degree of accuracy of the specific measurement.

  • bpm, beats per minute; CO2, carbon dioxide; METs, metabolic equivalents; VO2, oxygen consumption.