Table 1

Baseline risk factors and pneumonia characteristics in relation to 30-day mortality

VariableAll patients n=315Survivors n=254Non-survivors n=61P value
Age, years71.4+18.069.2+18.780.4+10.3<0.01
Male179 (56.8)141 (55.5)38 (62.3)0.39
BMI*22.7+6.123.5+6.319.9+3.70.0003
Smoking†
 Never177 (56.2)152 (59.8)25 (41.0)<0.01
 Former29 (9.2)28 (11.0)1 (1.6)
 Current24 (7.6)16 (6.3)8 (13.1)
Residing in long-term care facility63 (20)45 (17.7)18 (29.5)0.05
Hospitalisation in prior 30 days69 (21.9)49 (19.3)20 (32.8)0.02
Antibiotic therapy in prior 30 days71 (22.5)55 (21.7)16 (26.2)0.50
Comorbid chronic diseases
 Diabetes mellitus110 (34.9)83 (32.7)27 (39.3)0.10
 Hypertension190 (60.3)151 (59.4)39 (63.9)0.56
 Ischaemic heart disease86 (27.3)65 (25.6)21 (34.4)0.20
 Congestive cardiac failure17 (5.4)11 (4.3)6 (9.8)0.11
 Asthma22 (7.0)19 (7.5)3 (4.9)0.59
 Chronic obstructive lung disease22 (7.0)17 (6.7)5 (8.2)0.78
 Bronchiectasis22 (7.0)18 (7.1)4 (6.6)1.00
 Dementia85 (27.0)58 (22.8)27 (44.3)0.001
 Parkinson’s disease23 (7.3)18 (7.1)5 (8.2)0.79
 Chronic kidney disease48 (15.2)34 (13.4)14 (23.0)0.07
 Chronic liver disease11 (3.5)8 (3.1)3 (4.9)0.45
 Active cancers34 (10.7)16 (6.3)18 (29.5)<0.01
Vital signs on admission
 Fever >38.0°C191 (60.6)160 (63.0)31 (50.8)0.11
 Heart rate/minute96.9+1.395.2+1.3104.0+3.40.006
 Respiratory rate/minute21.3+5.020.2+3.725.5+7.2<0.01
 Systolic blood pressure (mm Hg)130.8+26.8134.5+25.4115+27.1<0.01
 Diastolic blood pressure (mm Hg)72.1+14.373.1+13.967.9+15.30.001
 Pulse capillary oxygenation (%)95.0+5.395.6+4.792.2+6.7<0.01
 Fraction of inspired oxygen required29.8+20.526.2+15.144.4+31.1<0.01
Respiratory symptoms
 Cough178 (56.6)150 (59.1)28 (45.9)0.08
 Dyspnoea130 (41.3)88 (34.6)42 (68.9)<0.01
 Sputum80 (25.4)62 (24.4)18 (29.5)0.41
 Haemoptysis4 (1.3)4 (1.6)0 (0)1.00
 Rhinorrhea11 (3.5)10 (3.9)1 (1.6)0.70
 Throat pain16 (5.1)16 (6.3)0 (0)0.05
 Chest pain31 (9.8)27 (10.6)4 (6.6)0.47
 Wheeze2 (0.6)2 (0.8)0 (0)1.00
 Myalgia10 (3.2)9 (3.5)1 (1.6)0.69
 Lethargy43 (13.7)28 (11.0)15 (24.6)0.01
 Fall20 (6.3)17 (6.7)3 (4.9)0.78
 Nausea or vomiting178 (56.5)150 (59.1)28 (45.9)0.08
Pneumonia complications
 Acute myocardial injury22 (7.0)12 (4.7)10 (6.4)0.004
 Acute kidney injury73 (23.2)43 (16.9)30 (9.1)<0.001
 Delirium26 (8.3)11 (4.3)15 (24.6)<0.001
 Critical care admission12 (3.8)11 (4.3)1 (1.6)0.34
Laboratory indices
 Serum C reactive protein (mg/L)68.9+78.559.3+69.7109.0+98.6<0.001
 Serum procalcitonin (μg/L)3.2+13.51.4+5.911.3+27.8<0.001
 White cell count (x10∧9 cells/L)12.8+14.511.3+4.918.9+30.70.0002
Microbial aetiology
 SARS-CoV-218 (5.7)18 (7.1)0 (0)1.00
Mycobacterium tuberculosis11 (3.5)11 (4.3)0 (0)1.00
VariableAll patients n=315Survivors n=254Non-survivors n=61
Pneumonia Severity Scores
CURB-65 score
 062 (19.7)61 (24.0)1 (1.6)
 199 (31.4)90 (35.4)9 (14.8)
 2103 (32.7)73 (28.7)30 (49.2)
 340 (12.7)27 (10.6)13 (21.3)
 49 (2.9)3 (1.2)6 (9.8)
 52 (0.6)0 (0)2 (3.3)
Pneumonia Severity Index101.4+40.292.7+36.1137.5+36.3
Pneumonia Severity Index Class
 I34 (10.8)34 (13.4)0 (0)
 II36 (11.4)36 (14.2)0 (0)
 III54 (17.1)48 (18.9)6 (9.8)
 IV115 (36.5)96 (37.8)19 (31.1)
 V76 (24.1)40 (15.7)36 (59.0)
CAPE Mortality Risk Score49.6+29.144.0+27.872.8+22.4
Outcomes
 Received antibiotics within 24 hours of presentation288 (91.4)227 (89.4)61 (100)
 Corticosteroids (oral or intravenous)34 (10.8%)30 (11.8)4 (6.6)
 Hospitalisation days‡8.9+9.1 5.5(3,12)9.5+0.6 6(3,13)6.8+0.8 4(2,10)
  • Data are presented as number (%), mean±SD, median (IQR).

  • *Data missing for 102 subjects.

  • †Data missing for 85 subjects.

  • ‡Data missing for 1one subject.

  • BMI, body mass index; CAPE, community-acquired pneumonia artificial intelligence predictive engine.