Table 1

Baselines characteristics of patients starting CPAP stratified by escalation status


For escalation to IMV (n=56)CPAP ceiling of care*
(n=32)
Whole cohort
(n=88)
Age (median, IQR)60 (53–65)76 (64–82)63 (56–74)
Age (years)
 <5010 (18%)1 (3%)11 (13%)
 50–5916 (29%)3 (9%)19 (22%)
 60–6922 (39%)9 (28%)31 (35%)
 70–798 (14%)8 (25%)16 (18%)
 ≥800 (0)%)11 (34%)11 (13%)
Male39 (70%)19 (60%)58 (66%)
BMI (kg/m2)31 (28–33)32 (28–36)31 (28–34)
Pre-hospital symptom duration9 (7–10)7 (6–10)8 (7–10)
Diabetes17 (30%)15 (47%)32 (36%)
Hypertension24 (43%)26 (82%)50 (57%)
Asthma5 (9%)4 (13%)9 (10%)
COPD2 (4%)4 (13%)6 (7%)
Other cardiac condition8 (14%)13 (47%)21 (24%)
OSA4 (7%)1 (3%)5 (6%)
Other comorbid illness26 (46%)22 (69%)48 (55%)
Smoked
 Never38 (68%)18 (56%)56 (64%)
 Ever14 (25%)13 (41%)27 (30%)
 Current4 (7%)1 (3%)5 (6%)
Clinical frailty scale221 (1–2)4 (3–5)2 (1–3)
Mortality 4C Score2319% (12%–27%)41% (24%–52%)23% (14%–40%)
Exercise tolerance (m)
 >150037 (66%)2 (6%)39 (44%)
 >100013 (23%)4 (13%)17 (19%)
 >5004 (7%)9 (28%)13 (15%)
 >1001 (2%)2 (6%)3 (3%)
 >501 (2%)5 (15%)6 (7%)
 <500 (0%)10 (31%)10 (11%)
  • *CPAP as ceiling care. The patient was not deemed clinically appropriate for mechanical ventilation.

  • †Self-reported.

  • BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; CPAP, continuous positive airway pressure; IMV, invasive mechanical ventilation; OSA, obstructive sleep apnoea.