Table 3

Comparison of characteristics by the primary outcome

CharacteristicHFNC failure (N=59)HFNC success (N=41)
Age (median)6668
Race (n, %)
 African American50 (85%)38 (93%)
 Caucasian4 (7%)0 (0%)
Gender (n, %)
 Male35 (59%)22 (54%)
 Female24 (41%)19 (46%)
BMI (n, %)
 <18.51 (2%)2 (5%)
 18.5–24.97 (12%)10 (24%)
 25–29.921 (36%)8 (20%)
 30–39.919 (32%)14 (34%)
 >4010 (17%)6 (15%)
Comorbidities
 Hypertension (n, %)41 (69%)34 (83%)
 Diabetes (n, %)20 (34%)15 (37%)
 Lung disease (n, %)19 (32%)9 (22%)
 Heart disease (n, %)19 (32%)14 (34%)
 Kidney disease (n, %)16 (27%)8 (20%)
 Cancer (n, %)4 (7%)2 (5%)
Admission characteristics
 FiO2 (median)21%21%
 SpO2 (median)91%93%
 CRP (median)160143
 LDH (median)573414
 Ferritin (median)693744
 CPK (median)233249
 Troponin (median)3138
 D-dimer (median)1.962.00
 Lymphocyte count (median)900900
Hospital course
 Hepatic dysfunction (n, %)23 (39%)4 (10%)
 Troponemia (n, %)21 (36%)9 (22%)
 Kidney injury (n, %)49 (83%)18 (44%)
 INR dysfunction (n, %)16 (27%)3 (7%)
 Received steroids (n, %)45 (76%)29 (71%)
 Received HCQ (n, %)51 (86%)29 (71%)
 ABG pH prior to HFNC (median)7.4237.428
 ABG pO2 prior to HFNC (median)58.665.3
 mSOFA prior to HFNC (median)55
Ventilator free days (mean)3.119.0
Sixty-day mortality (n, %)41 (69%)11 (27)
  • ABG, arterial blood gas; BMI, body mass index; CPK, creatine phosphokinase; CRP, C reactive protein; HCQ, hydroxychloroquine; HFNC, high-flow nasal cannula; INR, international normalised ratio; LDH, lactate dehydrogenase; mSOFA, modified sequential organ failure score.