Table 1

Baseline characteristics of the COPD population classified according to PsA infection during the study duration (2012–2020)

CharacterCOPD-PsACOPD-non-PsASig.
(n=173, 48.3%)(n=185, 51.7%)(P value)
Age73.63±8.4373.29±9.710.729
Gender<0.001*
 Male150 (86.7)129 (69.7)
 Female23 (13.3)56 (30.3)
Smoking status
 Active smoker40 (23.1)48 (26.2)0.794
 Ex-smoker132 (76.3)136 (73.2)
 Non-smoker1 (0.6)1 (0.5)
Smoking index64.14±30.4259.94±30.490.207
Comorbidities171 (99.4)181 (97.8)0.204
Associated bronchiectasis†45 (26)21 (11.4)0.001*
No of exacerbations6.62±5.914.08±3.61<0.001*
Associated pneumonia82 (47.4)76 (41.1)0.118
mMRC dyspnoea scale2.53±0.842.44±0.770.289
No of cultures with PBB‡4.49±4.660.66±1.02<0.001*
Baseline pulmonary function testing
 FEV1 % predicted41.34±17.745.2±16.530.036*
 DLCO % predicted41.46±17.2143.9±19.160.301
 RV198.64±61.92196.93±61.560.841
GOLD classification0.008*
 I10 (5.8)6 (3.3)
 II33 (19.3)62 (34.4)
 III80 (46.8)77 (42.8)
 IV48 (28.1)35 (19.4)
Medications
ICS152 (87.9)153 (82.7)0.17
Type of ICS0.003*
 Fluticasone propionate108 (62.4)78 (42.2)
 Fluticasone furoate6 (3.5)14 (7.6)
 Beclomethasone10 (5.8)22 (11.9)
 Budesonide28 (16.2)39 (21.1)
Dose of ICS§500 (250–1000)400 (200–1000)0.007*
LAMA158 (91.3)174 (94.1)0.306
LABA168 (97.1)177 (95.7)0.558
Theophylline28 (16.2)34 (18.4)0.584
Roflumilast8 (4.6)5 (2.7)0.331
Courses of systemic corticosteroids7.68±7.145.39±5.500.001*
Mortality120 (69.4)86 (46.5)<0.001*
  • *Significant p≤0.05.

  • †Bronchiectasis diagnosed based on CT taken either during hospitalisation or on follow-up of the patients.

  • ‡Positive sputum or bronchial aspirate culture for potential pathological bacteria.

  • §Fluticasone propionate equivalents (daily dose).

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; DLCO, diffusion capacity for carbon monoxide; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting beta-agonist; LAMA, long-acting muscarinic antagonist; mMRC, modified medical research council; PsA, Pseudomonas aeruginosa; RV, residual volume.