Table 5

Risk factors for lung function decline prior to COPD diagnosis

Estimate95% CIP value% variance
Sex, male*−0.066−0.07 to −0.06<0.00136
COPD severity†18
 Moderate−0.035−0.04 to −0.03<0.001
 Severe−0.064−0.07 to −0.05<0.001
 Very severe−0.031−0.06 to 0.0020.075
LAMA, yes‡−0.037−0.04 to −0.03<0.00112
Age (years)0.00170.001 to 0.002<0.00110
COPD exacerbations in the past year§9
 1−0.038−0.05 to −0.03<0.001
 2−0.051−0.07 to −0.03<0.001
 >2−0.078−0.10 to −0.05<0.001
LABA, yes‡−0.028−0.03 to −0.02<0.0014
Smoking¶4
 Active smoker−0.016−0.02 to −0.01<0.001
Diabetes, yes‡−0.024−0.03 to −0.02<0.0012
  • *Reference group: Female.

  • †Reference group: Mild.

  • ‡Reference group: No.

  • §Reference group: 0 exacerbations.

  • ¶Reference group: Former smoker.

  • CI, Confidence Interval; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; LABA, long-acting beta agonist; LAMA, long-acting antimuscarinic.