Table 3

Phenotypes’ characteristics prior to COPD diagnosis

Phenotype APhenotype BPhenotype C
Highest prevalence of severe COPDOlder ageYounger age
Highest number of COPD exacerbations in the past yearLarger majority of malesOverweight (one-third)
Hypertension (almost half)Overweight (almost half)Lowest number of COPD exacerbations in the past year
Depression (one-third)Highest prevalence of diabetesBetter lung function
Most-treated overallHighest prevalence of cardiovascular comorbiditiesHypertension (almost half)
 ICS (nearly all)Hypertension (two-third)Depression (one-third)
 ICS+LABA (nearly all)Coronary artery disease (more than half)Least-treated overall
 LAMA (large majority)Acute myocardial infarction (more than half)LAMA (one-third)
 MucolyticsCongestive cardiac failure (one-third)Mucolytics
Depression (one-third)
Intermediate level of treatment
ICS (almost half)
ICS+LABA (one-third)
LAMA (almost half)
  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ICS, inhaled corticosteroids; LABA, long-acting beta agonist; LAMA, long-acting antimuscarinic.;