Table 2

Demographic and clinical characteristics by WHO Clinical Progression Score

Total45678910P value
N=1391n=362n=553n=17n=11n=96n=180n=172
Age (years)59.0 (18.7)52.8 (20.3)59.0 (18.0)62.3 (17.2)50.2 (17.8)57.7 (16.9)56.9 (13.2)75.5 (13.2)<0.001
Sex0.0015
Male795 (100%)196 (25%)297 (37%)11 (1%)7 (1%)53 (7%)116 (15%)115 (14%)
Female596 (100%)166 (28%)256 (43%)6 (1%)4 (1%)43 (7%)64 (11%)57 (10%)
Race/ethnicity0.0458
White550 (100%)137 (25%)220 (40%)5 (1%)3 (1%)30 (5%)49 (9%)106 (19%)
Black/African American149 (100%)52 (35%)48 (32%)3 (2%)3 (2%)9 (6%)18 (12%)16 (11%)
Hispanic492 (100%)132 (27%)205 (42%)9 (2%)5 (1%)37 (8%)79 (16%)25 (5%)
Other84 (100%)23 (27%)30 (36%)0 (0%)0 (0%)10 (12%)13 (15%)8 (10%)
BMI (kg/m2)30.1 (7.0)28.6 (6.2)30.7 (6.9)28.7 (5.3)26.9 (7.0)30.4 (6.8)32.3 (7.2)29.5 (8.0)0.0003
BMI category (kg/m2)0.0594
<25274 (100%)90 (33%)94 (34%)4 (1%)3 (1%)17 (6%)22 (8%)44 (16%)
25.0–29.9411 (100%)118 (29%)171 (42%)5 (1%)4 (1%)27 (7%)40 (10%)46 (11%)
30.0–34.9302 (100%)67 (22%)126 (42%)3 (1%)0 (0%)24 (8%)49 (16%)33 (11%)
35.0–39.9147 (100%)30 (20%)71 (48%)2 (1%)0 (0%)8 (5%)24 (16%)12 (8%)
>40114 (100%)20 (18%)51 (45%)0 (0%)1 (1%)9 (8%)20 (18%)13 (11%)
Smoking history<0.001
Never777 (100%)226 (29%)315 (41%)9 (1%)6 (1%)54 (7%)103 (13%)64 (8%)
Yes—past404 (100%)73 (18%)166 (41%)8 (2%)2 (0%)25 (6%)48 (12%)82 (20%)
Yes—current102 (100%)44 (43%)34 (33%)0 (0%)2 (2%)6 (6%)7 (7%)9 (9%)
Unknown108 (100%)19 (18%)38 (35%)0 (0%)1 (1%)11 (10%)22 (20%)17 (16%)
Asthma0.0329
No1209 (100%)314 (26%)462 (38%)15 (1%)9 (1%)89 (7%)162 (13%)158 (13%)
Yes182 (100%)48 (26%)91 (50%)2 (1%)2 (1%)7 (4%)18 (10%)14 (8%)
COPD0.0006
No1248 (100%)346 (28%)477 (38%)17 (1%)10 (1%)90 (7%)173 (14%)135 (11%)
Yes143 (100%)16 (11%)76 (53%)0 (0%)1 (1%)6 (4%)7 (5%)37 (26%)
Bronchodilator use0.2180
No1169 (100%)312 (27%)459 (39%)14 (1%)6 (1%)82 (7%)165 (14%)131 (11%)
Yes222 (100%)50 (23%)94 (42%)3 (1%)5 (2%)14 (6%)15 (7%)41 (18%)
Inhaled corticosteroid use0.7889
No1239 (100%)327 (26%)485 (39%)17 (1%)10 (1%)84 (7%)165 (13%)151 (12%)
Yes152 (100%)35 (23%)68 (45%)0 (0%)1 (1%)12 (8%)15 (10%)21 (14%)
Montelukast use0.6712
No1372 (100%)356 (26%)545 (40%)17 (1%)11 (1%)96 (7%)179 (13%)168 (12%)
Yes19 (100%)6 (32%)8 (42%)0 (0%)0 (0%)0 (0%)1 (5%)4 (21%)
Any cardiac/metabolic disorder<0.001
No334 (100%)132 (40%)127 (38%)0 (0%)6 (2%)20 (6%)38 (11%)11 (3%)
Yes1057 (100%)230 (22%)426 (40%)17 (2%)5 (0%)76 (7%)142 (13%)161 (15%)
Coronary artery disease/myocardial infarction0.0008
No1180 (100%)322 (27%)463 (39%)15 (1%)9 (1%)87 (7%)166 (14%)118 (10%)
Yes211 (100%)40 (19%)90 (43%)2 (1%)2 (1%)9 (4%)14 (7%)54 (26%)
Heart failure<0.001
No1227 (100%)333 (27%)491 (40%)11 (1%)11 (1%)86 (7%)170 (14%)125 (10%)
Yes164 (100%)29 (18%)62 (38%)6 (4%)0 (0%)10 (6%)10 (6%)47 (29%)
Hypertension<0.001
No694 (100%)231 (33%)262 (38%)6 (1%)7 (1%)48 (7%)92 (13%)48 (7%)
Yes697 (100%)131 (19%)291 (42%)11 (2%)4 (1%)48 (7%)88 (13%)124 (18%)
Diabetes<0.001
No941 (100%)280 (30%)377 (40%)15 (2%)7 (1%)53 (6%)113 (12%)96 (10%)
Yes450 (100%)82 (18%)176 (39%)2 (0%)4 (1%)43 (10%)67 (15%)76 (17%)
Kidney disease<0.001
No1132 (100%)313 (28%)455 (40%)15 (1%)10 (1%)79 (7%)155 (14%)105 (9%)
Yes233 (100%)47 (20%)89 (38%)2 (1%)0 (0%)15 (6%)23 (10%)57 (24%)
  • Values indicate count (proportion) and mean (SD) as appropriate.

  • P values calculated using the Wald χ2 test in an ordered logistic regression model with a single predictor variable.

  • BMI, body mass index; COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.