Table 1

Sociodemographic characteristics and multivariate Cox proportional model of hospitalised patients with asthma and patients who were asthma exacerbated in Ghana, 2012–2017

Frequency of sociodemographic characteristicsCox proportional model
MaleFemaleTotal
N (%)N (%)N (%)P valueHR (95% CI)P value
Excluded in Cox model
Diagnosis
 Asthma7771 (98.0)11 425 (95.2)19 196 (96.3)<0.001
 Asthma exacerbation155 (2.0)575 (4.8)730 (3.7)
Outcome at discharge
 Alive7787 (98.3)11 897 (99.1)19 684 (98.8)
 Died126 (1.6)98 (0.8)224 (1.1)<0.001
 Missing13 (0.2)5 (0.1)18 (0.1)
Climate zones
 South-middle6421 (81.0)9593 (79.9)16 014 (80.4)0.06
 Northern1505 (19.0)2407 (20.1)3912 (19.6)
Harmattan
 No5397 (68.1)8198 (68.3)13 595 (68.2)0.74
 Yes2529 (31.9)3802 (31.7)6331 (31.8)
Seasons (south-middle climate zone)
 Dry (December–March)2015 (31.4)3019 (31.5)5034 (31.4)
 Wet (April–June)1559 (24.3)2625 (27.4)4184 (26.1)0.01
 Dry (July–August)1086 (16.9)1478 (15.4)2564 (16.0)
 Wet (September–November)1761 (27.4)2471 (25.8)4232 (26.4)
Seasons (Northern climate zone)
 Wet (May–September)672 (44.6)1033 (42.9)1705 (43.6)0.29
 Dry (October–April)833 (55.4)1374 (57.1)2207 (56.4)
LoS
 Median (IQR)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)2 (1–3)0.83
Age
 Mean (SD)30 (26.7)35.5 (23.0)33.7 (24.6)<0.001
Included in Cox model
Sex
 Male7926 (39.8)1.01 (0.91 to 1.12)0.83
 Female12 000 (60.2)
Year of admission
 2012971 (12.3)1342 (11.2)2313 (11.6)ref
 20131201 (15.2)1843 (15.4)3044 (15.3)1.04 (0.99 to 1.09)0.16
 20141391 (17.6)2127 (17.7)3518 (17.7)0.101.01 (0.96 to 1.06)0.75
 20151435 (18.1)2234 (18.6)3669 (18.4)0.96 (0.92 to 1.00)0.07
 20161726 (21.8)2509 (20.9)4235 (21.3)0.94 (0.90 to 0.98)<0.01
 20171202 (15.2)1945 (16.2)3147 (15.8)0.97 (0.93 to 1.02)0.21
Age group (years)
 0–41570 (19.8)961 (8.0)2531 (12.7)1.26 (1.02 to 1.55)0.03
 5–91013 (12.8)583 (4.9)1596 (8.0)1.39 (1.11 to 1.76)0.01
 10–14620 (7.8)471 (3.9)1091 (5.5)1.06 (0.82 to 1.39)0.64
 15–19455 (5.7)1297 (10.8)1752 (8.8)1.49 (1.15 to 1.93)<0.01
 20–24351 (4.4)1229 (10.2)1580 (7.9)<0.0011.25 (0.97 to 1.60)0.09
 25–29345 (4.4)1178 (9.8)1523 (7.6)ref
 30–34365 (4.6)989 (8.2)1354 (6.8)1.13 (0.85 to 1.51)0.40
 35–39324 (4.1)862 (7.2)1186 (6.0)1.05 (0.77 to 1.45)0.74
 40–44311 (3.9)685 (5.7)996 (5.0)1.34 (0.97 to 1.83)0.07
 45–49325 (4.1)557 (4.6)882 (4.4)1.12 (0.81 to 1.56)0.49
 50–54336 (4.2)532 (4.4)868 (4.4)1.02 (0.73 to 1.43)0.90
 55–59286 (3.6)486 (4.1)772 (3.9)0.76 (0.52 to 1.12)0.17
 60–64318 (4.0)403 (3.4)721 (3.6)0.73 (0.53 to 1.00)0.05
 65–69281 (3.6)310 (2.6)591 (3.0)0.80 (0.58 to 1.10)0.17
 70–74328 (4.1)431 (3.6)759 (3.8)0.85 (0.61 to 1.19)0.34
 75–79362 (4.6)493 (4.1)855 (4.3)0.78 (0.57 to 1.06)0.12
 80–100336 (4.2)533 (4.4)869 (4.4)0.66 (0.46 to 0.94)0.02
Educational Level
 No formal4068 (51.3)5710 (47.6)9778 (49.1)ref
 Below secondary2796 (35.3)4229 (35.2)7025 (35.3)<0.0011.03 (1.00 to 1.06)0.06
 Secondary and above1051 (13.3)2058 (17.2)3109 (15.6)1.08 (1.03 to 1.12)<0.001
 Missing11 (0.1)3 (<0.1)14 (0.1)
Employment status
 Unemployed4663 (58.8)5704 (47.5)10 367 (52.0)ref
 Employed2208 (27.9)4837 (40.3)7045 (35.4)<0.0010.97 (0.93 to 1.00)0.06
 Unspecified1053 (13.3)1454 (12.1)2507 (12.6)1.02 (0.98 to 1.07)0.34
 Missing2 (<0.1)5 (<0.1)7 (<0.1)
Health insurance ownership
 No1336 (16.9)1520 (12.7)2856 (14.3)<0.001ref
 Yes6524 (82.3)10 383 (86.5)16 907 (84.9)0.92 (0.89 to 0.95)<0.001
 Missing66 (0.8)97 (0.8)163 (0.8)
Surgical procedure
 No7531 (95.0)11 396 (95.0)18 927 (95)0.42ref
 Yes69 (0.9)118 (1.0)187 (0.9)0.91 (0.13 to 0.81)0.13
 Missing326 (4.1)486 (4.1)812 (4.1)
Comorbidity
 No5250 (66.2)8141 (67.8)13 391 (67.2)0.02ref
 Yes2676 (33.8)3859 (32.2)6535 (32.8)0.87 (0.85 to 0.89)<0.001
Region of admission
 Ashanti854 (10.8)1241 (10.3)2095 (10.5)1.50 (1.23 to 1.84)<0.001
 Brong Ahafo1007 (12.7)1561 (13.0)2568 (12.9)1.22 (0.99 to 1.50)0.06
 Central340 (4.3)542 (4.5)882 (4.4)1.12 (0.86 to 1.46)0.39
 Eastern1180 (14.9)1700 (14.2)2880 (14.5)1.14 (0.94 to 1.39)0.19
 Greater Accra672 (8.5)803 (6.7)1475 (7.4)0.02ref
 Northern784 (9.9)1207 (10.1)1991 (10.0)1.33 (1.07 to 1.66)0.01
 Upper East396 (5.0)504 (4.2)900 (4.5)1.24 (0.94 to 1.64)0.12
 Upper West325 (4.1)696 (5.8)1021 (5.1)2.09 (1.69 to 2.58)<0.001
 Volta1301 (16.4)2090 (17.4)3391 (17.0)1.12 (0.93 to 1.36)0.24
 Western1067 (13.5)1656 (13.8)2723 (13.7)1.32 (1.07 to 1.61)0.01
Season (combined)
 Rainy3934 (49.6)5879 (48.9)9805 (49.2)0.33ref
 Dry3992 (50.4)6129 (51.1)10 121 (50.8)1.00 (0.98 to 1.02)0.92
  • LoS, length of stay.