Table 2

Pulmonary function, questionnaire and imaging measurements

ParameterNever-COVID
(n=9)
All COVID-19 participants
Ever-COVID
(n=76)
Ever hospitalised
(n=23)
Never hospitalised
(n=53)
Sig. p value
Pulmonary function
 FEV1* %pred101 (11)85 (20)77 (21)88 (19)0.005
 FVC* %pred103 (10)88 (20)80 (18)92 (20)0.004
 FEV1/FVC*0.81 (0.04)0.76 (0.11)0.75 (0.14)0.77 (0.09)0.3
 LCI* n breaths9.0 (1.4)10.7 (3.9)11.8 (5.0)10.1 (3.0)0.2
 LCIao* n breaths8.0 (1.3)9.5 (3.3)11.4 (4.9)8.6 (1.8)0.04
 DLCO* %pred89 (29)75 (23)95 (29)0.009
Exercise capacity and QoL
 6MWD* m454 (84)405 (86)471 (76)0.005
 SpO2 post-exertion* %97 (3)95 (5)98 (2)0.03
 SGRQ*35 (18)37 (15)34 (19)0.6
 mMRC*1 (1)1 (1)1 (1)0.6
 IPAQ* MET-minutes4709 (4895)3048 (3433)5327 (5238)0.1
MRI
 VDP %1.1 (0.9)5.4 (7.1)7.8 (11.1)4.4 (4.2)0.03
CT*
 TAC270 (110)294 (175)263 (88)0.5
 WA mm266 (2)66 (2)66 (2)0.4
 LA mm214 (3)15 (4)14 (3)0.5
 WT mm1.4 (0.1)1.4 (0.1)1.4 (0.1)0.7
  • FEV1, FVC, LCIao, DLCO, 6MWD, SpO2 post-exertion and VDP significantly different between groups.

  • Values are reported as mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated.

  • p=significance value for analysis of variance between never-COVID, ever-hospitalised and never-hospitalised.

  • FEV1*, FVC*, FEV1/FVC*: Never-hospitalised n=52.

  • LCI*: Never-COVID n=5, Ever-COVID n=44, Ever-hospitalised n=16, Never-hospitalised n=28.

  • LCIao*: Never-COVID n=5, Ever-COVID n=32, Ever-hospitalised n=10, Never-hospitalised n=22.

  • DLCO*: Ever-COVID n=64, Ever-hospitalised n=20, Never-hospitalised n=44.

  • MWD* and mMRC*: Ever-COVID n=66, Ever-hospitalised n=17, Never-hospitalised n=49.

  • SpO2 post-exertion*: Ever-COVID n=65, Ever-hospitalised n=17, Never-hospitalised n=48.

  • SGRQ*: Ever-COVID n=64, Ever-hospitalised n=16, Never-hospitalised n=48.

  • IPAQ*: Ever-COVID n=59, Ever-hospitalised n=16, Never-hospitalised n=43.

  • CT*: Ever-COVID n=56 with 44 amenable to quantitative analysis, Ever-hospitalised n=9, Never-hospitalised n=35.

  • ao, airway opening; DLCO, diffusing capacity of the lungs for carbon monoxide; FEV1, forced expiratory volume in 1 s; FVC, forced vital capacity; IPAQ, International Physical Activity Questionnaire; LA, lumen area; LCI, lung clearance index; MET, metabolic equivalent; mMRC, modified Medical Research Council dyspnea score; 6MWD, 6-minute walk distance; %pred, percent of predicted value; QoL, quality-of-life; SGRQ, St. George’s Respiratory Questionnaire; SpO2, pulse oximetry estimation of arterial blood oxygen saturation made on a fingertip; TAC, total airway count; VDP, ventilation defect percent; WA, wall area; WT, wall thickness.