Table 1

Baseline characteristics of overall cohort, before and after propensity score matching

VariableBefore propensity score matchingAfter propensity score matching
Control groupCannabis usersStandardised difference*Control groupCannabis usersStandardised difference*
n=28 689n=6425n=10 395n=4807
Age at index date (years), mean±SD, (IQR)40.2±17.6, (23–57)32.2±14.0, (23–43)0.5135.2±15.4, (21–48)34.4±14.6, (21–47)0.05
Women (%)58.638.80.4042.042.00.00
Income quintile (%)
 1 (lowest)17.320.50.0819.819.60.01
Rural residence (%)21.418.80.0620.019.60.01
≥1 ER visit or hospitalisation for any cause past year (%)24.930.50.1228.928.10.02
≥1 Respiratory-related ER visit or hospitalisation past year (%)
Number of outpatient physician visits past year (%)
Tobacco smoking status (%)
 Never/not available58.720.90.8426.126.10.00
Number of cigarettes smoked per day among current/former smokers (%)
 ≤12 per day14.536.60.5231.131.00.00
 >12 per day26.842.50.3342.742.80.00
 Not applicable/not available58.820.90.8426.226.20.00
Any illicit substance use past year (%)
History of problem drinking (%)6.725.10.5218.317.10.03
Asthma or COPD (%)18.723.10.1121.421.40.00
Other pulmonary disease (%)
GORD (%)
Hypertension (%)
Myocardial infarction (%)
Congestive heart failure (%)
Diabetes (%)
Cancer (%)
Psychotic mental health disease (%)
Depression disorder (%)
Anxiety disorder (%)21.527.80.1526.425.90.01
Mental/behavioural disorder from substance use (%)
Personality disorder (%)
Other non-psychotic mental health disorder (%)
Sleep disorder (%)
Respirologist outpatient visit past year (%)
Spirometry, bronchoprovocation or exercise oximetry testing past year (%)
Respiratory-related medication use past year (%)
Influenza vaccination past year (%)32.619.40.3122.321.70.01
  • Year of Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) interview was also included in our propensity score model and well-balanced among cannabis users and controls, but is not shown above for table formatting purposes.

  • *Standardised differences of >0.10 are thought to indicate potentially meaningful differences.

  • COPD, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease; ER, emergency room; GORD, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease; n, number.