Table 1

Demographic and clinical description of those who have responded to activities reduced/ceased and mMRC (n=828)

Activities reduced/ceasedP value
Yes (n=162)No (n=666)
Age follow-up (mean (SD))73.27 (0.72)73.21 (0.67)0.330
Marital status*Living separately/living alone/divorced/widowed33 (22.3)78 (12.6)0.003
Married/partnered115 (77.7)543 (87.4)
Education*Elementary63 (42.3)193 (30.8)0.040
Upper secondary26 (17.5)150 (23.9)
Professional school32 (21.5)136 (21.7)
University28 (18.8)148 (23.6)
Smoking statusCurrent smoker10 (6.2)40 (6.0)0.61
Former smoker99 (61.1)388 (58.3)
Never smoked49 (30.2)232 (34.8)
BMI (kg/m2)Mean (SD)28.83 (4.7)26.64 (3.4)<0.001
WHO categories
n (%)
Underweight/healthy weight28 (17.6)213 (32.9)<0.001
Overweight73 (45.9)342 (52.8)
Obese58 (36.5)93 (14.4)
Duration of breathing problems (years)Mean (SD)6.66 (9.3)3.59 (9.8)0.020
Hospital Anxiety and Depression (HADS) scores†Anxiety summary score (0–21)5.25 (4.5)2.98 (3.0)<0.001
Anxiety grouped
n (%)
Normal (0–7)111 (71.6)585 (91.0)<0.001
Borderline (8–10)16 (10.3)42 (6.5)
Abnormal (11–21)28 (18.1)16 (2.5)
Depression summary score (0–21)4.75 (3.8)2.56 (2.7)<0.001
Depression grouped
n (%)
Normal (0–7)117 (74.5)614 (95.2)<0.001
Borderline (8–10)25 (15.9)24 (3.7)
Abnormal (11–21)15 (9.6)7 (1.1)
WHO
Performance Status;‡ n (%)
Fully active; no performance restrictions.52 (32.7)536 (81.5)<0.001
Strenuous physical activity restricted; fully ambulatory and able to carry out light work.79 (49.7)102 (15.5)
Capable of all self-care but unable to carry out any work activities. Up and about >50% of waking hours/capable of only limited self-care; confined to bed or chair >50% of waking hours/completely disabled; cannot carry out any self-care; totally confined to bed or chair.28 (17.6)20 (3.0)
Exertion; n (%)Sedentary29 (17.9)34 (5.0)<0.001
Moderate exercise104 (64.2)411 (61.0)
Moderate but regular exercise25 (15.4)190 (28.2)
Frequent exercise4 (2.5)39 (5.8)
Additional therapies/supportsUse walking aids; n (%)11 (7.3)2 (0.3)<0.001
Use oxygen therapy; n (%)7 (4.6)4 (0.6)<0.001
modified Medical Research Council (mMRC) breathlessness scale; n (%)045 (27.8)528 (79.3)<0.001
133 (20.4)74 (11.1)
230 (18.5)39 (5.9)
326 (16.1)17 (2.6)
428 (17.3)8 (1.2)
Multidimensional Dyspnea Profile (MDP)†Total§14.88 (22.4)1.64 (5.4)<0.001
Perception¶8.20 (11.0)1.08 (2.9)<0.001
Emotional**5.40 (8.0)0.83 (3.2)<0.001
A1††2.05 (2.1)0.35 (0.8)<0.001
MDP—A1 by group score0479 (77.6)47 (30.5)<0.001
188 (14.3)25 (16.2)
228 (4.5)32 (20.8)
316 (2.6)24 (15.6)
4–86 (1.0)26 (16.9)
Dyspnoea-12
(D-12)‡‡
Total Score5.61 (7.0)0.61 (2.0)<0.001
Total score with imputation (according to Yorke)§§5.63 (6.9)0.60 (2.0)<0.001
Physical subdomain score¶¶3.54 (4.1)0.46 (1.4)<0.001
Affect subdomain score***2.07 (3.2)0.15 (0.7)<0.001
  • *Activities (reduced/ceased) include: physical activities, social contacts, associations, talking on the phone, sexual activities, other;~baseline data (not collected at Wave 2).

  • †Respondents’ numbers reflect complete data for that measure.

  • ‡grades 2–4 merged into a single category.

  • §65.6% scored 0 for MDP Total.

  • ¶61.4% scored 0 for MDP Perception.

  • **76.1% scored 0 for MDP Emotional.

  • ††68.2% scored 0 for MDP-A1.

  • ‡‡71.7%scored 0 for D-12 total score.

  • §§71.4% scored 0 for D-12 total score with imputation.

  • ¶¶71.6% scored 0 for D-12 Physical.

  • ***86.4% scored 0 for D-12 Affect.