Table 1

Basic characteristics of the patients

TotalLeft upper lobectomyLeft lower lobectomyRight upper lobectomyRight middle lobectomyRight lower lobectomy
N=37 352N=7462N=5593N=13 075N=2912N=8310
20.0%15.0%35.0%7.80%22.3%
Variables
Age, mean (SD)70.0 (9.1)69.6 (9.0)70.3 (9.1)69.9 (9.0)69.8 (10.0)70.4 (8.9)
Sex, men22 377 (59.9%)4495 (60.2%)3276 (58.6%)7946 (60.8%)1487 (51.1%)5173 (62.3%)
Body mass index
 <18 kg/m21443 (3.9%)257 (3.4%)210 (3.8%)492 (3.8%)132 (4.5%)352 (4.2%)
 18–24.9 kg/m224 416 (65.4%)4874 (65.3%)3696 (66.1%)8502 (65.0%)1888 (64.8%)5456 (65.7%)
 >25 kg/m211 493 (30.8%)2331 (31.2%)1687 (30.2%)4081 (31.2%)892 (30.6%)2502 (30.1%)
Smoking history (current or former)22 604 (60.5%)4512 (60.5%)3325 (59.4%)8011 (61.3%)1459 (50.1%)5297 (63.7%)
Activity of daily living
 Self-reliant36 727 (98.3%)7345 (98.4%)5503 (98.4%)12 875 (98.5%)2847 (97.8%)8157 (98.2%)
 Use of a cane377 (1.0%)63 (0.8%)60 (1.1%)125 (1.0%)42 (1.4%)87 (1.0%)
 Wheelchair user144 (0.4%)33 (0.4%)17 (0.3%)38 (0.3%)13 (0.4%)43 (0.5%)
 Total assistance104 (0.3%)21 (0.3%)13 (0.2%)37 (0.3%)10 (0.3%)23 (0.3%)
Cancer TNM stage
 01757 (4.7%)302 (4.0%)210 (3.8%)703 (5.4%)205 (7.0%)337 (4.1%)
 Ⅰ26 765 (71.7%)5332 (71.5%)3908 (69.9%)9749 (74.6%)2254 (77.4%)5522 (66.5%)
 Ⅱ5303 (14.2%)1067 (14.3%)955 (17.1%)1582 (12.1%)255 (8.8%)1444 (17.4%)
 Ⅲ3188 (8.5%)691 (9.3%)454 (8.1%)943 (7.2%)169 (5.8%)931 (11.2%)
 Ⅳ339 (0.9%)70 (0.9%)66 (1.2%)98 (0.7%)29 (1.0%)76 (0.9%)
Comorbidities
 Any of the following applies16 183 (43.3%)3240 (43.4%)2377 (42.5%)5649 (43.2%)1215 (41.7%)3702 (44.5%)
 Chronic kidney disease276 (0.7%)39 (0.5%)46 (0.8%)110 (0.8%)21 (0.7%)60 (0.7%)
 Vascular disease1034 (2.8%)230 (3.1%)181 (3.2%)326 (2.5%)64 (2.2%)233 (2.8%)
 Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy47 (0.1%)7 (0.1%)8 (0.1%)19 (0.1%)7 (0.2%)6 (0.1%)
 Heart failure1409 (3.8%)289 (3.9%)208 (3.7%)482 (3.7%)102 (3.5%)328 (3.9%)
 Hypertension9664 (25.9%)1963 (26.3%)1374 (24.6%)3440 (26.3%)761 (26.1%)2126 (25.6%)
 Diabetes7380 (19.8%)1438 (19.3%)1097 (19.6%)2530 (19.3%)504 (17.3%)1811 (21.8%)
 Cerebral infarction or haemorrhage394 (1.1%)72 (1.0%)56 (1.0%)140 (1.1%)34 (1.2%)92 (1.1%)
 Atrial fibrillation1473 (3.9%)300 (4.0%)209 (3.7%)554 (4.2%)127 (4.4%)283 (3.4%)
Surgical approach
 Thoracotomy5625 (15.1%)1292 (17.3%)828 (14.8%)1696 (13.0%)388 (13.3%)1421 (17.1%)
 Video-assisted31 727 (84.9%)6170 (82.7%)4765 (85.2%)11 379 (87.0%)2524 (86.7%)6889 (82.9%)
Hospital-level factor: number of lobectomies in the observation period
 1–729436 (25.3%)1778 (23.8%)1453 (26.0%)3313 (25.3%)761 (26.1%)2131 (25.6%)
 73–1179266 (24.8%)1915 (25.7%)1405 (25.1%)3235 (24.7%)711 (24.4%)2000 (24.1%)
 120–1829714 (26.0%)1966 (26.3%)1440 (25.7%)3335 (25.5%)749 (25.7%)2224 (26.8%)
 184–4828936 (23.9%)1803 (24.2%)1295 (23.2%)3192 (24.4%)691 (23.7%)1955 (23.5%)
  • TNM, tumour node metastasis.