Table 1

Mitogenic factors of aSMC

FactorsCellular sourceEffectsRef
Growth factors
 PDGFPlatelets, monocytes/macrophages, ASMC, epitheliumPro-proliferative123–126
 FGFExtracellular matrix, monocytes/macrophages, ASMCPro-proliferative126–129
 EGFEpithelium, plateletsPro-proliferative130
Cytokines
 TGF-βASMC, T-lymphocytes, epitheliumPro-proliferative128 131–133
 TNF-αASMC, epithelium, T cells, monocytes/macrophagesPro-proliferative, antiproliferative126 134–136
 IL-1βT cells, monocytes/macrophages, ASMC, epitheliumPro-proliferative137 138
 IL-6T cells, monocytes/macrophages, ASMC, epitheliumPro-proliferative135 138
 IFN-γT cells, NK cellsAntiproliferative139
 IL-4T-cell, mast cellsAntiproliferative140 141
Inflammatory mediators
 HistamineMast cells, basophilsPro-proliferative142 143
 Thromboxane A2Mast cells, monocytes/macrophagesPro-proliferative144 145
 Sphingosine 1-phosphatePlasma, plateletsPro-proliferative146
Enzymes and diverse
 TryptaseMast cellsPro-proliferative143 147
 ThrombinPlasmaPro-proliferative148
 ElastaseNeutrophilsPro-proliferative149
 Reactive oxygen speciesMonocytes–macrophages, neutrophils, eosinophils, mast cellsPro-proliferative150
  • aSMC, airway smooth muscle cells; EGF, epidermal growth factor; FGF, fibroblast growth factor; IFN, interferon; IL, interleukine; PDGF, platelet-derived growth factor; TGF-β, transforming growth factor-β; TNF-α, tumor necrosis factor-α.